Archive for the ‘Emotional Intelligence’ Category

Environmental sustainability is a growth strategy

Tuesday, November 3rd, 2020
Malaysia has set a commendable target to generate 20 per cent of electricity from renewable energy sources by 2025. Still, more can be done.  - NST file picMalaysia has set a commendable target to generate 20 per cent of electricity from renewable energy sources by 2025. Still, more can be done. – NST file pic

SHAKESPEARE’S play Macbeth begins with the three witches deciding when they would meet the eponymous hero: “When shall we three meet again, in thunder, lightning, or in rain? When the hurley-burley’s done, when the battle’s lost and won.”

The rapid loss of biodiversity brings man in ever closer contact with wildlife, a potential tinderbox for future epidemics.

Should the nation wait until the pandemic is over and the hurly-burly of partisan politics subsides to push for environmental sustainability?

Investments in environmental sustainability are not a dampener on economic growth. The International Monetary Fund estimates that spending an additional one per cent of gross domestic product on public investments will create seven million jobs directly and 20 million indirectly.

This is yet another reason why additional public investments in sustainable development are timely.

Other developed countries have gone head over heels in setting ambitious targets on carbon neutrality, meaning that they will not emit more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than they take out.

Japan is the fifth largest emitter of carbon dioxide. It has stopped pussy-footing around becoming carbon neutral by specifying a firm target.

Like South Korea and the European Union, Japan intends to be completely carbon neutral by 2050.

China plans to do so by 2060.

Malaysia has set a commendable target to generate 20 per cent of electricity from renewable energy sources by 2025. Still, more can be done.

Here are three recommendations.

First, the government should make the private sector more responsive to the demands of environmental sustainability by coming down hard on polluters through harsher punishments such as a carbon emission tax.

Given their propensity to pollute with impunity, unlicensed factories should be closed down immediately. This is in line with the principle that the polluter pays for the harm to society.

Second, a green-light framework should complement the red-light or ‘no-go’ legislation that proscribes behaviour on the pain of sanction. Such a framework will require companies to be compensated through tax incentives for their investments in green technology.

Additionally, power plants and factories could be made to compete for their licences. The factory owner who proves that he can produce his products with the least environmental pollution should win the licence.

Third, capacity in public institutions responsible for environmental well-being should be enhanced. Skills in these institutions should be upgraded to enable officers to better tackle environmental challenges, including the enforcement of regulations.

Research and development (R&D) and technological innovation in environmental protection are the other aspects of the green-light approach. China is atop the upward leg of its sharp V-shaped rebound while other countries are still mired in recession and struggling to cope with another wave of Covid-19 infections.

R&D and technological innovation have enabled China’s speedy recovery. In a similar vein, the government and industries should intensify R&D in environmental sustainability. Japan aims to do so on green technology, especially solar, to achieve its carbon-neutral ambition.

A study by Yale University found a correlation between corruption and environmental sustainability. The less corrupt a country, whatever its income level, the more likely it was to score high on its concern for environmental protection. Tackling corruption must therefore be another pillar of the green-light slant to environmental sustainability.

Third, civil society should be more aggressive in demanding environmental protection.

We should put environmental debates on a firmer footing to ensure that the environment remains high on the government agenda. We should also demand that the government show us the money as evidence of its commitment to environmental protection.

Unlike the witches in Macbeth, we need neither wait for the pandemic to be over nor for the political ructions to fizzle out to push for environmental protection.

As Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga asserted recently: “Carbon neutrality itself is a growth strategy, and we must carry it out with all we have.”

By Datuk Dr. John Antony Xavier.

REad more @

Daniel Goleman’s five components of emotional intelligence

Sunday, November 20th, 2016

Emotional Intelligence, as a psychological theory, was developed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer.

“Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.”

- Mayer & Salovey, 1997

The following steps describe the five components of emotional intelligence at work, as developed by Daniel Goleman. Goleman is a science journalist who brought “emotional intelligence” on the bestseller list and has authored a number of books on the subject, including “Emotional Intelligence,” “Working With Emotional Intelligence,” and, lately, of “Social Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships.”

An article on the relation between Goleman and the psychological research communitiy appeared in Salon, on June 28, 1999.

The Five Components of Emotional Intelligence

Self-awareness. The ability to recognize and understand personal moods and emotions and drives, as well as their effect on others. Hallmarks* of self-awareness include self-confidence, realistic self-assessment, and a self-deprecating sense of humor. Self-awareness depend on one’s ability to monitor one’s own emotion state and to correctly identify and name one’s emotions.

[*A hallmark is a sure sign: since self-awareness is necessary for, say, realistic self-assessment, that is, without self-awareness no realistic self-assessment, the presence of of realistic self-assessment is a sure sign (sufficient to conclude that there is) self-awareness.]

Self-regulation.The ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods, and the propensity to suspend judgment and to think before acting. Hallmarks include trustworthiness and integrity; comfort with ambiguity; and openness to change.

Internal motivation. A passion to work for internal reasons that go beyond money and status -which are external rewards, – such as an inner vision of what is important in life, a joy in doing something, curiosity in learning, a flow that comes with being immersed in an activity. A propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence. Hallmarks include a strong drive to achieve, optimism even in the face of failure, and organizational commitment.

Empathy. The ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people. A skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions. Hallmarks include expertise in building and retaining talent, cross-cultural sensitivity, and service to clients and customers. (In an educational context, empathy is often thought to include, or lead to, sympathy, which implies concern, or care or a wish to soften negative emotions or experiences in others.) See also Mirror Neurons.
It is important to note that empathy does not necessarily imply compassion. Empathy can be ‘used’ for compassionate or cruel behavior. Serial killers who marry and kill many partners in a row tend to have great emphatic skills!

Social skills. Proficiency in managing relationships and building networks, and an ability to find common ground and build rapport. Hallmarks of social skills include effectiveness in leading change, persuasiveness, and expertise building and leading teams.

Read more @

13 Habits of Exceptionally Likable People

Thursday, March 19th, 2015

Too many people succumb to the mistaken belief that being likable comes from natural, unteachable traits that belong only to a lucky few—the good looking, the fiercely social, and the incredibly talented. It’s easy to fall prey to this misconception. In reality, being likable is under your control, and it’s a matter of emotional intelligence (EQ).

In a study conducted at UCLA, subjects rated over 500 adjectives based on their perceived significance to likeability. The top-rated adjectives had nothing to do with being gregarious, intelligent, or attractive (innate characteristics). Instead, the top adjectives were sincerity, transparency, and capacity for understanding (another person).

These adjectives, and others like them, describe people who are skilled in the social side of emotional intelligence. TalentSmart research data from more than a million people shows that people who possess these skills aren’t just highly likable, they outperform those who don’t by a large margin.

Related: 9 Things Successful People Won’t Do

We did some digging to uncover the key behaviors that emotionally intelligent people engage in that make them so likable. Here are 13 of the best:

1. They Ask Questions.

The biggest mistake people make when it comes to listening is they’re so focused on what they’re going to say next or how what the other person is saying is going to affect them that they fail to hear what’s being said. The words come through loud and clear, but the meaning is lost.

A simple way to avoid this is to ask a lot of questions. People like to know you’re listening, and something as simple as a clarification question shows that not only are you listening, you also care about what they’re saying. You’ll be surprised how much respect and appreciation you gain just by asking questions.

2. They Put Away Their Phones:

Nothing will turn someone off to you like a mid-conversation text message or even a quick glance at your phone. When you commit to a conversation, focus all of your energy on the conversation. You will find that conversations are more enjoyable and effective when you immerse yourself in them.

3. They Are Genuine:

Being genuine and honest is essential to being likable. No one likes a fake. People gravitate toward those who are genuine because they know they can trust them. It is difficult to like someone when you don’t know who they really are and how they really feel.

Likable people know who they are. They are confident enough to be comfortable in their own skin. By concentrating on what drives you and makes you happy as an individual, you become a much more interesting person than if you attempt to win people over by making choices that you think will make them like you.

4. They Don’t Pass Judgement:

If you want to be likable you must be open-minded. Being open-minded makes you approachable and interesting to others. No one wants to have a conversation with someone who has already formed an opinion and is not willing to listen.

Having an open mind is crucial in the workplace where approachability means access to new ideas and help. To eliminate preconceived notions and judgment, you need to see the world through other people’s eyes. This doesn’t require you believe what they believe or condone their behavior, it simply means you quit passing judgment long enough to truly understand what makes them tick. Only then can you let them be who they are.

5. They Don’t Seek Attention:

People are averse to those who are desperate for attention. You don’t need to develop a big, extroverted personality to be likable. Simply being friendly and considerate is all you need to win people over. When you speak in a friendly, confident, and concise manner, you will notice that people are much more attentive and persuadable than if you try to show them you’re important. People catch on to your attitude quickly and are more attracted to the right attitude than what—or how many people—you know.

by Travis Bradberry.

Read more @

When courage is a virtue

Sunday, November 9th, 2014

One must have spirit and spunk to execute tasks only for good reasons and not otherwise.

SIR Winston Churchill once said that courage is all that it takes to stand up and speak and courage is also all that it takes to sit and listen. I would like to share my thoughts on the topic COURAGE, a value which is very much related to the ethics and integrity of any person or organisation.

In this context, my focus is on moral courage rather than physical courage. Writer Ambrose Redmoon looked at courage not as the absence of fear but rather as the judgment of something more important than fear. While author Mark Twain saw courage as the resistance to fear and English author Samuel Johnson regarded it as “the greatest virtue of all for unless we have this value, we will not have the security of preserving all the other values”.

In relation to what these great people have to say about courage, I would like to reflect on my personal experience in tackling bribery. This is to inspire other school leaders to embrace the virtues of courage, honesty and integrity.

In 1996 I was given the unenviable task of turning around the Tawau Technical School in Sabah. This school had a long-standing reputation for being a failing school scoring only 28.28% passes in the Secondary School Certificate Examination. With such poor academic results, it was clear that the whole management of the school needed reengineering. It took me lots of courage to enter the school not knowing what to expect.

The most terrifying moment was when a notorious man demanded that the school pay him for projects that did not even take place.

As he talked roughly, he placed two fingers on the table and started tapping them. Puzzled, I asked him what it meant. He said that it was his gesture of offering me commission if I were to pay him. Two fingers had signified 20%. Upon seeing that I would not accept his bribe, he turned violent and threatened to kill me speaking in Hakka ngai sart ngi!

At this juncture, I gathered enough strength and retaliated aggressively. I jumped up to meet the challenge, demonstrating as if I was going to wield Chinese kungfuand shouted Sart! (Kill!)


Read more @

How to Promote Emotional Intelligence in Children

Tuesday, April 3rd, 2012

A person’s childhood plays a major role in shaping his/her personality. Developing emotional intelligence in children now will help them build a rational thought process and make decisions in future. It can save your child a lot of trauma caused by imprudent actions later. Also, emotional intelligence helps the child to understand his/her skills, abilities and capabilities better. It contributes to the child’s rapid psychological development in a positive direction. Hardships are a part of life and an emotionally intelligent child is better equipped to deal with them. They will be able to understand themselves as well as others and become sensitive to feelings.

We live in a world now where it is not sufficient just to get good grades. Human intelligence is not limited to the knowledge of books any longer. The world is no more bound by distances and the virtual world allows us to interact with our counterparts spread across various geographical locations. It is very crucial to a child’s growth and development into an emotionally healthy child by promoting emotional intelligence in them right from their childhood. Such individuals also perform well in their careers, become successful and even become valuable employees to companies, when employed. Here are a few ways to help you in developing emotional intelligence in children.

Ways to Develop Emotional Intelligence in Children

Encourage Reading: Yes, I did say that knowledge is not limited to books. But, it all depends on what kind of books you are getting your children to read. Children are mostly inclined towards reading stories. They all help in making your children morally strong by subtly introducing them to a variety of life experiences. They also get to understand different perspectives of people and how to deal with diverse situations that may face in future. Books highlight negative and positive attitude and behavior of people with different personalities, while polishing their language skills.

Participation in Extracurricular Activities in School: It helps in real-life interaction of your kids with others of the same age and promotes emotional intelligence amongst them. Extracurricular activities also help your children to express themselves and deal with their emotions. It brings about self-awareness as they discover new aspects of their own personality. Also, it brings healthy competition and encourages your child to polish their skills. Such children grow up to become extroverted and have a flare for public interaction.

More Play Time with Other Children: At home, after your child comes back from school, encourage him to go out and play with other kids in the neighborhood. Playing in an environment away from school also helps them ease up. It is an unregulated environment and behavior is not monitored unless parents intervene. This is the time when children exhibit their true nature and attitude. They learn to look out for themselves. A playground is an unstructured social setting where relationships are based upon interaction with those around the child.

Involve Children at Home: Involve your children with family activities. It is a common misconception that children should be kept away from issues involving the family and the household in order to protect them or not put any burden on them. You may be alienating the child unknowingly. Involve them in decisions like what to buy from the supermarket on a grocery budget, even for the big purchases like a car or a new television set, ask their help to make sweets for festivities, take care of the dog or help in cleaning the kitchen. It brings a sense of responsibility among them.

Join Hobby Classes: This is the best thing you can do to make your child happy by encouraging them to pursue and learn their interests. They will be grateful to you while they learn something different from what they are taught at school. They will become more enthusiastic towards learning and it will be a stimulating experience to try out different things as they grow up, further enriching them as individuals.

Encourage Children to Talk: By giving your child the freedom to express himself around you and other family members, you will ensure that there are no negative feelings in your child’s heart towards any situation that may occur even outside home. It will keep you aware of the daily developments in your child’s life.

Reward Good Behavior: What if your child picks up a negative attitude before he/she start showing any positive characteristics? If your child seems introverted and has a lack of enthusiasm for participating in other activities that promote emotional intelligence in kids, you need to spend more time with your child to understand the problem. They may be being bullied by other kids, they feel disconnected to the environment or maybe feeling shy. You need to have the talk with your child and help them deal with such issues. Motivate and reward them for showing good behavior by buying tickets for the local circus show, a trip to the annual fair, a piece of chocolate for cleaning their room, a new bicycle for good grades or extra time to watch their favorite television show.

Reprimand Bad Behavior: If your neighbors or your child’s teachers are complaining about your child for exhibiting rude or harmful behavior towards others, it is better to take control of the situation now than regret later. You must punish them for showing your unhappiness towards such behavior. You can punish them by first having a talk without scolding them to explain that such behavior will not be appreciated. Show them the other side of the picture that they fail to realize. If that doesn’t work, you may resort to tactics like having nobody in the family talking to the child until he/she realizes the mistake and promises to be better in future, take away the luxuries that they may have enjoyed till now like watching television, going out to play with other kids or having dessert after dinner. Do not be too harsh that they start to resent you as well.

by Urvashi Pokharna.

Read more @

Quotes About Emotional Intelligence

Tuesday, March 6th, 2012

What do researchers and psychologists have to say about emotional intelligence? Psychologists have proposed a variety of definitions, discussed the potential benefits, and offered critical analysis of differing theoretical models. The following quotes are just a sampling of what has been written on the topic of emotional intelligence.

Defining Emotional Intelligence:

  • David Caruso: “It is very important to understand that emotional intelligence is not the opposite of intelligence, it is not the triumph of heart over head — it is the unique intersection of both.”
    –From (“Emotional What?”)
  • Freedman et al.: “Emotional Intelligence is a way of recognizing, understanding, and choosing how we think, feel, and act. It shapes our interactions with others and our understanding of ourselves. It defines how and what we learn; it allows us to set priorities; it determines the majority of our daily actions. Research suggests it is responsible for as much as 80% of the “success” in our lives.”
    –From Handle With Care: Emotional Intelligence Activity Book
  • Salovey & Mayer: “We define emotional intelligence as the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions.”
    –From “Emotional Intelligence,” 1990
  • Mayer & Cobb: “The ability to process emotional information, particularly as it involves the perception, assimilation, understanding, and management of emotion.”
    –From “Educational policy on emotional intelligence: Does it make sense?”, 2000

The Importance of Emotional Intelligence:

  • John Gottman: “In the last decade or so, science has discovered a tremendous amount about the role emotions play in our lives. Researchers have found that even more than IQ, your emotional awareness and abilities to handle feelings will determine your success and happiness in all walks of life, including family relationships.”
    –From Raising an Emotionally Intelligent Child
  • McCown et al: “Experiencing one’s self in a conscious manner–that is, gaining self-knowledge–is an integral part of learning.”
    –From Self-Science: The Emotional Intelligence Curriculum
  • Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey, and Palfai: “People in good moods are better at inductive reasoning and creative problem solving.”
    –From Emotion, Disclosure, and Health, 1995
  • John D. Mayer: “An emotion occurs when there are certain biological, certain experiential, and certain cognitive states which all occur simultaneously.”
    –From EQ Today, Spring 1999
  • Mayer & Salovey: “People high in emotional intelligence are expected to progress more quickly through the abilities designated and to master more of them.”
    –From “What is Emotional Intelligence” in Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Educational Implications, by Peter Salovey and David Sluyter. 1997

Criticisms of Emotional Intelligence Research:

  • Hans Eysenck on Goleman’s work: “[he] exemplifies more clearly than most the fundamental absurdity of the tendency to class almost any type of behaviour as an ‘intelligence’…If these five ‘abilities’ define ‘emotional intelligence’, we would expect some evidence that they are highly correlated; Goleman admits that they might be quite uncorrelated, and in any case if we cannot measure them, how do we know they are related? So the whole theory is built on quicksand; there is no sound scientific basis.”
    –From Intelligence: A New Look, 2000

The Future of Emotional Intelligence:

  • Peter Salovey: “I think in the coming decade we will see well-conducted research demonstrating that emotional skills and competencies predict positive outcomes at home with one’s family, in school, and at work. The real challenge is to show that emotional intelligence matters over-and-above psychological constructs that have been measured for decades like personality and IQ. I believe that emotional intelligence holds this promise.”
    –From “Emotional What?” EQ Today

by Kendra Cherry.

Read more @

Measuring Emotional Intelligence

Tuesday, March 6th, 2012

“In regard to measuring emotional intelligence – I am a great believer that criterion-report (that is, ability testing) is the only adequate method to employ. Intelligence is an ability, and is directly measured only by having people answer questions and evaluating the correctness of those answers.” –John D. Mayer

  • Reuven Bar-On’s EQ-i
    A self-report test designed to measure competencies including awareness, stress tolerance, problem solving, and happiness. According to Bar-On, “Emotional intelligence is an array of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures.”
  • Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS)
    An ability-based test in which test-takers perform tasks designed to assess their ability to perceive, identify, understand, and utilize emotions.
  • Seligman Attributional Style Questionnaire (SASQ)
    Originally designed as a screening test for the life insurance company Metropolitan Life, the SASQ measures optimism and pessimism.
  • Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI)
    Based on an older instrument known as the Self-Assessment Questionnaire, the ECI involves having people who know the individual offer ratings of that person’s abilities on a number of different emotional competencies.

by Kendra Cherry.

Read more @

A Brief History of Emotional Intelligence

Monday, February 27th, 2012
  • 1930s – Edward Thorndike describes the concept of “social intelligence” as the ability to get along with other people.
  • 1940s – David Wechsler suggests that affective components of intelligence may be essential to success in life.
  • 1950s – Humanistic psychologists such as Abraham Maslow describe how people can build emotional strength.
  • 1975 – Howard Gardner publishes The Shattered Mind, which introduces the concept of multiple intelligences.
  • 1985 – Wayne Payne introduces the term emotional intelligence in his doctoral dissertation entitled “A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion, tuning in/coming out/letting go).”
  • 1987 – In an article published in Mensa Magazine, Keith Beasley uses the term “emotional quotient.” It has been suggested that this is the first published use of the term, although Reuven Bar-On claims to have used the term in an unpublished version of his graduate thesis.
  • 1990 – Psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer publish their landmark article, “Emotional Intelligence,” in the journal Imagination, Cognition, and Personality.
  • 1995 – The concept of emotional intelligence is popularized after publication of psychologist and New York Times science writer Daniel Goleman’s book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ.

by Kendra Cherry.

Read more @

Emotional development: How to raise your emotional intelligence

Friday, February 24th, 2012

Most of us know that there is a world of difference between knowledge and behavior, or applying that knowledge to make changes in our lives. There are many things we may know and want to do, but don’t or can’t when we’re under pressure. This is especially true when it comes to emotional intelligence.

Emotional intelligence is not learned in the standard intellectual way; it must be learned and understood on an emotional level. We can’t simply read about emotional intelligence or master it through memorization. In order to learn about emotional intelligence in a way that produces change, we need to engage the emotional parts of the brain in ways that connect us to others. This kind of learning is based on what we see, hear, and feel. Intellectual understanding is an important first step, but the development of emotional intelligence depends on sensory, nonverbal learning and real-life practice.

Developing emotional intelligence through five key skills:

Emotional intelligence consists of five key skills, each building on the last:

  • Emotional intelligence (EQ) skill 1: The ability to quickly reduce stress.
  • Emotional intelligence (EQ) skill 2: The ability to recognize and manage your emotions.
  • Emotional intelligence (EQ) skill 3: The ability to connect with others using nonverbal communication.
  • Emotional intelligence (EQ) skill 4: The ability to use humor and play to deal with challenges.
  • Emotional intelligence (EQ) skill 5: The ability to resolve conflicts positively and with confidence.

The five skills of emotional intelligence can be learned by anyone, at anytime. But there is a difference between learning about emotional intelligence and applying that knowledge to your life. Just because you know you should do something doesn’t mean you will—especially when you’re feeling stressed. This is especially true when it comes to the skills of emotional intelligence.

Raising your emotional intelligence by engaging your emotions:

When you become overwhelmed by stress, the emotional parts of your brain override the rational parts—hijacking your best-laid plans, intentions, and strategies. In order to permanently change behavior in ways that stand up under pressure, you need to learn how to take advantage of the powerful emotional parts of the brain that remain active and accessible even in times of stress. This means that you can’t simply read about emotional intelligence in order to master it. You have to learn the skills on a deeper, emotional level—experiencing and practicing them in your everyday life.

Read more @

What Is Emotional Intelligence?

Wednesday, February 22nd, 2012

Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is an inborn characteristic.

Since 1990, Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer have been the leading researchers on emotional intelligence. In their influential article “Emotional Intelligence,” they defined emotional intelligence as, “the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions” (1990).

The Four Branches of Emotional Intelligence:

Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: the perception of emotion, the ability reason using emotions, the ability to understand emotion and the ability to manage emotions.

  1. Perceiving Emotions: The first step in understanding emotions is to accurately perceive them. In many cases, this might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions.
  2. Reasoning With Emotions: The next step involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention.
  3. Understanding Emotions: The emotions that we perceive can carry a wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of their anger and what it might mean. For example, if your boss is acting angry, it might mean that he is dissatisfied with your work; or it could be because he got a speeding ticket on his way to work that morning or that he’s been fighting with his wife.
  4. Managing Emotions: The ability to manage emotions effectively is a key part of emotional intelligence. Regulating emotions, responding appropriately and responding to the emotions of others are all important aspect of emotional management.

According to Salovey and Mayer, the four branches of their model are, “arranged from more basic psychological processes to higher, more psychologically integrated processes. For example, the lowest level branch concerns the (relatively) simple abilities of perceiving and expressing emotion. In contrast, the highest level branch concerns the conscious, reflective regulation of emotion” (1997).

by Kendra Cherry.

Read more @