Archive for the ‘Industry 4.0’ Category

Industry 4.0: A new form of inequality?

Friday, July 26th, 2019
When most jobs, both physical and cognitive, are automated, when humans no longer decide for themselves what is right and good, what then, is the meaning of life?

IT seems much intellectual and public discourse in Malaysia today revolves around Industry 4.0, or the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

While many aspects of Industry 4.0 have been debated, allow me to contribute a bit about this issue, by focusing on the possible effects of a new form of inequality in society.

The economic inequality — wealth and income — that is affecting Malaysian society today is a result of the past three Industrial Revolutions which started more than 150 years ago in England.

Now, the fourth wave of the revolution is here with us, hence Industry 4.0.

These new technologies will certainly impact all aspects of our lives.

Imagine being able to live forever. Google has already embarked on this project and is upbeat about its prospects. Google’s Ray Kurzweil believes that by 2029, humans could have a choice to be immortal, thanks to the nanotechnology revolution, where the creation of nano-bots makes it possible to augment our immune system and recognise diseases and deal with them before it is too late.

And mind you, this is not just about living longer, but also having all the health, youth and vitality of life. In other words, it is not just about life extension, but also life expansion.

Imagine the creation of all-powerful algorithms which will take care of all your wants and needs for the rest of your life, as ‘they’ know you much better than you know yourself.

No more dealing with the misery of making wrong decisions in life

From mundane matters like what movie to watch and what books to read, to important decisions such as what to study, which career to take and whom to marry, these algorithms will help you

‘They’ can also be your life companion. No more stress from relationship issues, since the algorithms will be programmed to be focused on you, your feelings and nothing else, one hundred per cent.

Imagine the application in the legal, financial and healthcare sectors.

Perhaps corruption can be easily weeded out with AI taking charge of making decisions in the public service sector.

And in the legal profession, imagine brain scans being used to reveal lies and deceptions!

In the financial sector, even today, most financial trading is managed by computer algorithms.

Why need humans when AI can process and analyse financial data in mere seconds?

Why learn about stocks or foreign exchange markets when AI can do that for you faster and with a higher level of accuracy?

And in the healthcare industry, algorithms will become your all-knowing health service, shielding you from critical illnesses, such as cancer, stroke and heart disease.

Remember IBM’s Watson? An AI which can diagnose diseases?

Imagine, the creation of IoT and its application in the education and security sectors.

Digital teachers not only impart knowledge, but in the process also understand you and know your personality better than you do

They will use a method which suits your personality to optimise teaching and learning.

So, having imagined all these as possible outcomes of Industry 4.0, would life not be great?

On the surface, perhaps yes. But I foresee, if we don’t take the necessary measures today, a major threat could emerge in the form of inequality.

Surely, only a small class of elites would benefit from this new technology, for instance, in terms of ‘upgrading’ humans to immortality.

Then what will happen to the rest of the population?

Wen most jobs, both physical and cognitive, are automated, when humans no longer decide for themselves what is right and good, what then, is the meaning of life?

By Dr Irwan Shah Zainal Abidin

Read more @ https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2019/07/507390/industry-40-new-form-inequality

Improve writing, scholars told

Monday, July 8th, 2019

MORE needs to be done to improve the quality of Malaysia’s scholastic journals and articles.

Malaysian Scholarly Publication Council (Mapim) executive committee chairman Prof Datuk Dr Abdul Wahab Mohammad said some of the entries they received for this year’s National Book Awards did not even meet the minimum requirements.

“There are still some weaknesses that resulted in several nominations being rejected, especially in the Best Editing Work category,” he said during the Mapim-KPM 2018 Award Ceremony held recently.

However, he said there was an overall improvement in the quality of the publications that won this year and that most of the six categories had main prize winners.

Each category was divided into two fields, which are humanities’ social science and medical technology science.

There are three prizes for each category – main award, appreciation award and the appreciation prize.

Award winners at the 12th award ceremony received a cash prize, a trophy and a certificate each.

At the event, Deputy Education Minister Teo Nie Ching said the number of scientific papers being published in Malaysia was still low.

She added that the government aims to have 31,700 titles being published annually by 2020, compared to the 19,713 published in 2017.

“I would like to call on scholars to continue to work and publish scientific books covering various humanities’ social science and medical technology science topics,” she said.

She added that scholars should also explore writing about new fields such as Industrial Revolutions 4.0 and 5.0.

By Rebecca Rajaendram
Read more @
https://www.thestar.com.my/news/education/2019/07/07/improve-writing-scholars-told/#6YmfD1HCJPfvVadQ.99

More industry contribution to research and innovation needed

Wednesday, July 3rd, 2019
By Abdul Wahab Mohammad - July 3, 2019 @ 12:49pm

RESEARCH and innovation (R&I) can drive the economic growth of a country. The best example is probably the Republic of Korea.

In the 1950s, Korea’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was less than Malaysia, but over the last 50 years, it has increased by more than 117 times compared to our country’s GDP which has increased by approximately 15 times only.

As a result, the GDP of Korea now far exceeds Malaysia and the former is now considered an advanced and developed country.

Thirty years ago, it was quite rare to hear the names of Samsung, LG and Hyundai but today these companies are the giants in producing various types of products which generate strong growth for the corporations and thus indirectly for the nation.

During my last visit to Korea several years ago, I was told that Samsung has more than 1,500 personnel with doctoral degrees working for it. They carry out applied and innovative research directly beneficial for Samsung products.

Data on R&I spending provided by Unesco (http://uis.unesco.org/apps/visualisations/research-and-development-spend…) clearly illustrates the need for more involvement of Malaysian companies in R&I activities. The data, as displayed in Table 1, shows overall R&I spending as measured by the percentage of GDP for the top 15 countries in the world. In addition, data for China, Malaysia and Thailand is included for comparison. The spending data is broken down further into contributions by the industry, government and universities.

The data clearly shows that the percentage of R&I spending in Malaysia is only about 1.3 per cent of the GDP as opposed to Korea (number one ranking), which is about 4.3 per cent.

However, the more important fact is shown by the ratio of industry contribution as opposed to government and university contribution. In Korea, the ratio is 3.86 which means that the industry contribution is 3.86 times higher than that from government and universities. However, for Malaysia, the ratio is only 0.84 which means that in Malaysia, government and universities contribute more to R&I expenditure.

Data for the top 15 countries also shows the same trends whereby the industries contribute more to R&I spending compared to government and universities. Industries should be the sector that can really drive commercialisation of R&I to produce innovative products that can compete in the open market.

It is interesting to note that China, even though it is not listed as the Top 15 nations, spends a huge amount of money on R&I and industry involvement is much higher (ratio of 3.40 which is almost the same as Korea). Even in Thailand, which has lower R&I spending compared to Malaysia, the ratio of industry contribution is 1.20 which is higher than Malaysia. Figure 1 clearly shows that only Malaysia has a ratio of below 1.0.

Therefore, it is timely that the R&I ecosystem in Malaysia shifts towards more active involvement by the Malaysian industries. The Malaysian government has provided various incentives to the industries to encourage more impactful R&I activities to be carried out. For example, offer tax incentives or double tax cut for contribution to R&I funding.

The Education Ministry and the Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology, Environment and Climate Change have also allocated a huge amount of money for R&I by encouraging research collaboration between universities and industries. Industries are encouraged to provide matching funds for these partnerships. However, the take-up by industries is rather low, may be because R&I activities are not viewed as a strategic sector by the companies.

Public and private universities in Malaysia are always looking forward to provide the cooperation to enhance R&I between universities and industries. There are a significant number of doctoral degree holders in universities now who are keen to work on R&I that will benefit the country. These academics have also nurtured thousands of graduates at the master’s and doctoral levels who have specific expertise in their own fields.

These graduates are looking for employment opportunities in R&I so that they can use their expertise to generate new and creative ideas that can contribute towards higher economic growth for the companies and the country.

Therefore, it is highly imperative that the industries now should respond to make R&I as one of the important sectors for strategic growth of the companies.

Companies should at least set up research units/divisions that will look into the development of innovative ideas that can help increase their revenue. These units/divisions can work with the universities to enhance the R&I partnership. Even though the immediate returns for the company may not be obvious in the short term, the R&I unit/division should be seen as a sustainable strategic measure to sustain the business in the long run by researching creative ideas that can be explored further.

The success of Korean companies should be the right model to show how R&I has helped to enhance the profitability of companies in the long run. As for the universities, we are always open to any ideas on R&I collaboration with industries so that universities and industries can work together to help Malaysia become an advanced country like Korea. This is not just a dream but this is something that can be successful, provided both parties are willing to work together towards common goals.

By Abdul Wahab Mohammad

Read more @ https://www.nst.com.my/education/2019/07/501152/more-industry-contribution-research-and-innovation-needed

Youth and Internet governance

Sunday, June 30th, 2019
Aisyah Shakirah Suhaidi speaking at ICANN Meeting in Kobe, Japan

EMBRACING the Industry 4.0, the Internet has become an essential part of everyday life, particularly for digital natives — those who are born and brought up in a world with digital technology.

According to the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission’s Internet Users Survey 2018, 30 per cent or the highest percentage of Internet users in the country are young people in their 20s, most of whom are digital natives.

In this digital era, Internet users are susceptible to issues such as online crimes, abuse, threats and conflicts. Last year, more than 10,000 cybersecurity attacks were recorded by CyberSecurity Malaysia.

Therefore, proper oversight in the form of Internet governance — a process where Internet users, developers, network operators, online service providers, governmisyah Shakirah Suhaidi speaking at ICANN Meeting in Kobe, Japan.
ents and international organisations come together to resolve problems related to cyberspace — can help to ensure a safe online environment.

YOUTH ADVOCATE

Despite being the main stakeholders of the Internet, the Malaysian youth are mostly missing from important local and international discourse on Internet governance.

Internet Governance Forum (IGF) ambassador Aisyah Shakirah Suhaidi, 24, views this as a huge problem.

The IGF Ambassadors programme is organised by the Internet Society in relation to the annual IGF — a multi-stakeholder forum introduced by the United Nations (UN) to discuss Internet governance.

The forum is open to all stakeholders of the Internet including government authorities, the private sector, civil society as well as technical and academic communities through an open dialogue system.

Aisyah Shakirah said: “Our youth are shaping online culture in many ways. Although we are the most dominant users of the Internet, when it comes to policy discussions, most of us are not at the table.

“When the youth are underrepresented in major policy developments and implementation processes, the future of the Internet will be greatly affected,” said the Universiti Malaya law student from Jitra, Kedah.

Aisyah Shakirah developed an interest in Internet governance at the age of 17, when she began volunteering with the Internet Society Malaysia Chapter (ISOC MY).

“From my involvement there, the UN invited me to attend the World Summit of the Information Society Forum 2012 in Geneva, Switzerland as a speaker representing the youth.

“It was then that I understood that a lot of work goes into making sure that the Internet is a safe, secure and reliable infrastructure. I wanted to be a part of it,” she said.

“I believe I have a responsibility to facilitate change by representing and leading the youth in my country and region to increase their participation in Internet governance.”

She noted that there exists a lack of awareness on fundamental Internet knowledge in Malaysia’s local grassroot communities.

“As a result, many Malaysians are increasingly becoming victims of cyber-attacks such as identity theft, cross-site scripting, Internet scams and online harassment.

“Many are also uninformed about important Internet issues such as online freedom, fake news, censorship and data governance.

“I want to address this by setting up continuous community-based educational initiatives while encouraging local, regional, and global engagement in Internet policy development and implementation processes.”

INTERNET GOVERNANCE FORUM

Last year, Aisyah Shakirah was invited to attend the IGF at the Unesco headquarters in Paris, France.

This opportunity came through the Internet Society IGF 2018 Ambassadors Programme held in collaboration with the UN and the French government.

Out of thousands of applications from around the world, only 14 candidates were selected to be ambassadors representing their respective countries.

Proud to be one of them, Aisyah Shakirah said: “As IGF ambassadors, we were given a number of tasks and responsibilities. Throughout the year, we had to study a number of modules, take part in various online tests and online conference calls, engage in Internet governance-related discussion every week and participate in Twitter discussions.

“In Paris, we were tasked to facilitate collaborative leadership exchanges, speak at sessions, address issues, propose solutions and attend numerous meetings,” said the final-year student.

The forum carried the theme Internet of Trust, which originated from the knowledge that the Internet is increasingly under threat.

Aisyah Shakirah said: “Recently the global Internet has been experiencing a series of cyberattacks that is not only affecting individuals, but also the operations of strategic security services, administration and healthcare.

“It has become a space for hate speech and fake news dissemination as well as the development of criminal organisations and terrorist propaganda. Not only is the Internet under threat, but the Internet itself is starting to be described by some as a threat.

“The question is, how do we deal with the weaknesses and cracks in the system to ensure the stability and security of the Internet, without breaking it apart?”

At IGF 2018, various sessions and dialogues were conducted to discuss these issues.

“For example, there were sessions on how we celebrate emerging technologies such as 5G, artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things while not compromising the ethical, legal and security challenges they pose.

“There were also sessions on the risk of and responses to online child sexual exploitation, the need for Internet Protocol version 6 for the future of games, refugee rights online, data governance in smart cities, how to prepare Gen YZ for their future career as well as the issue of mental health and youth on the cyberspace.

“Currently, a lot of the younger generation are making a career on the Internet through mediums such as YouTube, and they are involved in social media marketing so a proper framework should exist,” added Aisyah Shakirah.

DEVELOPING AN APPLICATION, MAKING A DIFFERENCE

Post-forum, the IGF ambassadors were expected to work on projects or coordinate initiatives and activities within their regions to spread awareness on Internet governance.

So, in March 2019, Aisyah Shakirah represented Malaysia and Southeast Asia at the 64th Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Meeting in Kobe, Japan.

She was among the 12 students selected through the NextGen@ICANN Programme which provides funding and coaching to individuals between the ages of 18 and 30 who are interested in actively engaging their regional communities to shape the future of global Internet policy.

Prerequisites include displaying interest in ICANN and the Internet through examples of current work or research.

At the meeting, Aisyah Shakirah delivered a speech on a project that her team at ISOC MY has been working on.

“We have developed a crowdsourcing mobile application called MyHelper to help and empower Asean B40 women so that they can earn extra income by offering services such as cooking, baking and sewing. As of now, the app is only available on Android.

“We provide low-income or unemployed women with training to equip them with the essential entrepreneurial skills.

“This project provides opportunities for women to develop their skills through information communications technology, empowers women to start their own businesses, and use the Internet to improve their livelihoods,” said Aisyah Shakirah, hoping that her speech would attract regional partnership.

UNIVERSITIES AND INTERNET GOVERNANCE

Professor Mohamed Ridza Wahiddin, from the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), said that academic institutions can play a role in encouraging more youth involvement in Internet governance.

The Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology (KICT) lecturer said: “Universities can raise awareness to students and lecturers on matters connected to the digital environment.

“We can produce educational materials on Internet issues as well as support the coordination between youth groups and organisations.”

At IIUM, an initiative called the IIUM Siber Sejahtera Flagship Project was spearheaded by a team of academics and students to impact local, national and global communities.

It is a part of the awareness and advocacy campaign by KICT, which engages the neighbouring communities of IIUM to be cyber-literate and ethical in cyberspace.

“Our first target group is the Orang Asli community wherein we provide training for their youth to be safe in cyberspace.

“To ensure the sustainability of the project, a group of trainers among the Orang Asli is identified so that the knowledge on cybersecurity can be further propagated within the community,” said Mohamed Ridza.

Determined to develop future talents and instil them with values in cybersecurity, the second target group consists of students, teachers and parents in select schools.

“This is to keep them safe from online threats including cyberbullying, violation of privacy, pornography and Internet addiction while promoting virtues.”

Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP) senior lecturer Dr Norshakirah Abdul Aziz said that students especially in the field of information and technology can learn about Internet governance through their university courses and projects.

“Youth or university students should first understand what is actually being governed. In our faculty, we have introduced the subject, Computer Ethics and Cyber Law.

“It is designed to examine the ethical issues surrounding Internet use and the connection between ethics and technology. Our aim is to ensure students know how to apply their knowledge in computer ethics.

“We also want students to demonstrate social responsibilities in relation to computer ethics and the cyberspace. UTP will mould students and develop them to utilise the technology in the right way. Students need to develop the right values and attitudes related to IT governance,” said the computer and information sciences lecturer.

Norshakirah added: “In this course, students will learn about cyber crimes such as computer hacking, privacy infringement, software and product privacy, computing systems and the ethics of software development.

“In the legal aspect, they will learn about the basics of Contract Law, Computer Crimes Act 1997, Digital Signature Act 1997 and the Communications and Multimedia Act. When they study the cyber laws and cases, they can definitely see the impact of Internet governance.

“UTP utilises the active learning and problem-solving method for teaching and learning. Throughout the semester, students will be actively involved in projects related to computer ethics.”

Universities can also lead research projects and consultancy services to help the community.

“In UTP’s High Performance Cloud Computing Data Centre and Centre for Research in Data Science, I lead a very dedicated team to conduct research into IT governance.

“Internet governance is essential to ensure that data is properly managed by the assigned parties. Individuals need to treat their data and information as assets. If a problem occurs when the information is not adequately secured, it can lead to issues such as data breach.

“Many organisations came to realise that Internet governance is critical after many cases of data breaches. So, it is necessary to have someone who can control the data,” said Norshakirah, adding that according to a research conducted, IT governance is an effective management framework.

For Taylor’s University computer science and forensics student Priyanka S. Jayakumar, she had come across the concept of Internet governance a few times whilst studying and researching.

“I understand that Internet governance is all about the rules, standards, practices and especially policies evolving around global cyberspace.

“I know there are laws and acts pertaining to Internet governance but many people aren’t aware of issues related to it,” said Priyanka.

She noted the importance of Internet governance for youth as they are the major age group for Internet users.

“It’s important for youths to know the do’s and don’ts on the Internet and to know the indications when one is faced with something off online. That kind of awareness only comes with proper education and enforcement from a young age.

“More people should be aware of the consequences of certain online activities and learn how to be safe in the virtual world,” said the 21-year-old, who added that awareness can be spread through education, public forums, campaigns and the use of simple and non-technical terms.

“A compulsory subject focusing on Internet awareness should be created and taught in schools. Everyone should be aware of online safety and the new threats and security breaches that are happening on the Internet.

“There should be no room for any uncertainty for young people when it comes to the Internet so they know how to exercise their rights. For example, in the case of cyber-bullying, people should know to contact the relevant authorities to report this incident,” said the aspiring computer forensics investigator.

“Public forums will not only help to educate people about the Internet and its policies but the questions that come from the public may help experts in identifying any loopholes in their policy-making.

by Rayyan Rafidi,

Read more @ https://www.nst.com.my/education/2019/06/499319/youth-and-internet-governance

Youth and Internet governance

Wednesday, June 26th, 2019
Aisyah Shakirah Suhaidi speaking at ICANN Meeting in Kobe, Japan.

EMBRACING the Industry 4.0, the Internet has become an essential part of everyday life, particularly for digital natives — those who are born and brought up in a world with digital technology.

According to the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission’s Internet Users Survey 2018, 30 per cent or the highest percentage of Internet users in the country are young people in their 20s, most of whom are digital natives.

In this digital era, Internet users are susceptible to issues such as online crimes, abuse, threats and conflicts. Last year, more than 10,000 cybersecurity attacks were recorded by CyberSecurity Malaysia.

Therefore, proper oversight in the form of Internet governance — a process where Internet users, developers, network operators, online service providers, governments and international organisations come together to resolve problems related to cyberspace — can help to ensure a safe online environment.

YOUTH ADVOCATE

Despite being the main stakeholders of the Internet, the Malaysian youth are mostly missing from important local and international discourse on Internet governance.

Internet Governance Forum (IGF) ambassador Aisyah Shakirah Suhaidi, 24, views this as a huge problem.

The IGF Ambassadors programme is organised by the Internet Society in relation to the annual IGF — a multi-stakeholder forum introduced by the United Nations (UN) to discuss Internet governance.

The forum is open to all stakeholders of the Internet including government authorities, the private sector, civil society as well as technical and academic communities through an open dialogue system.

Aisyah Shakirah said: “Our youth are shaping online culture in many ways. Although we are the most dominant users of the Internet, when it comes to policy discussions, most of us are not at the table.

“When the youth are underrepresented in major policy developments and implementation processes, the future of the Internet will be greatly affected,” said the Universiti Malaya law student from Jitra, Kedah.

Aisyah Shakirah developed an interest in Internet governance at the age of 17, when she began volunteering with the Internet Society Malaysia Chapter (ISOC MY).

“From my involvement there, the UN invited me to attend the World Summit of the Information Society Forum 2012 in Geneva, Switzerland as a speaker representing the youth.

“It was then that I understood that a lot of work goes into making sure that the Internet is a safe, secure and reliable infrastructure. I wanted to be a part of it,” she said.

“I believe I have a responsibility to facilitate change by representing and leading the youth in my country and region to increase their participation in Internet governance.”

She noted that there exists a lack of awareness on fundamental Internet knowledge in Malaysia’s local grassroot communities.

“As a result, many Malaysians are increasingly becoming victims of cyber-attacks such as identity theft, cross-site scripting, Internet scams and online harassment.

“Many are also uninformed about important Internet issues such as online freedom, fake news, censorship and data governance.

“I want to address this by setting up continuous community-based educational initiatives while encouraging local, regional, and global engagement in Internet policy development and implementation processes.”

INTERNET GOVERNANCE FORUM

Last year, Aisyah Shakirah was invited to attend the IGF at the Unesco headquarters in Paris, France.

This opportunity came through the Internet Society IGF 2018 Ambassadors Programme held in collaboration with the UN and the French government.

Out of thousands of applications from around the world, only 14 candidates were selected to be ambassadors representing their respective countries.

Proud to be one of them, Aisyah Shakirah said: “As IGF ambassadors, we were given a number of tasks and responsibilities. Throughout the year, we had to study a number of modules, take part in various online tests and online conference calls, engage in Internet governance-related discussion every week and participate in Twitter discussions.

“In Paris, we were tasked to facilitate collaborative leadership exchanges, speak at sessions, address issues, propose solutions and attend numerous meetings,” said the final-year student.

The forum carried the theme Internet of Trust, which originated from the knowledge that the Internet is increasingly under threat.

Aisyah Shakirah said: “Recently the global Internet has been experiencing a series of cyberattacks that is not only affecting individuals, but also the operations of strategic security services, administration and healthcare.

“It has become a space for hate speech and fake news dissemination as well as the development of criminal organisations and terrorist propaganda. Not only is the Internet under threat, but the Internet itself is starting to be described by some as a threat.

“The question is, how do we deal with the weaknesses and cracks in the system to ensure the stability and security of the Internet, without breaking it apart?”

At IGF 2018, various sessions and dialogues were conducted to discuss these issues.

“For example, there were sessions on how we celebrate emerging technologies such as 5G, artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things while not compromising the ethical, legal and security challenges they pose.

“There were also sessions on the risk of and responses to online child sexual exploitation, the need for Internet Protocol version 6 for the future of games, refugee rights online, data governance in smart cities, how to prepare Gen YZ for their future career as well as the issue of mental health and youth on the cyberspace.

“Currently, a lot of the younger generation are making a career on the Internet through mediums such as YouTube, and they are involved in social media marketing so a proper framework should exist,” added Aisyah Shakirah.

DEVELOPING AN APPLICATION, MAKING A DIFFERENCE

Post-forum, the IGF ambassadors were expected to work on projects or coordinate initiatives and activities within their regions to spread awareness on Internet governance.

So, in March 2019, Aisyah Shakirah represented Malaysia and Southeast Asia at the 64th Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Meeting in Kobe, Japan.

She was among the 12 students selected through the NextGen@ICANN Programme which provides funding and coaching to individuals between the ages of 18 and 30 who are interested in actively engaging their regional communities to shape the future of global Internet policy.

Prerequisites include displaying interest in ICANN and the Internet through examples of current work or research.

At the meeting, Aisyah Shakirah delivered a speech on a project that her team at ISOC MY has been working on.

“We have developed a crowdsourcing mobile application called MyHelper to help and empower Asean B40 women so that they can earn extra income by offering services such as cooking, baking and sewing. As of now, the app is only available on Android.

“We provide low-income or unemployed women with training to equip them with the essential entrepreneurial skills.

“This project provides opportunities for women to develop their skills through information communications technology, empowers women to start their own businesses, and use the Internet to improve their livelihoods,” said Aisyah Shakirah, hoping that her speech would attract regional partnership.

UNIVERSITIES AND INTERNET GOVERNANCE

Professor Mohamed Ridza Wahiddin, from the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), said that academic institutions can play a role in encouraging more youth involvement in Internet governance.

The Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology (KICT) lecturer said: “Universities can raise awareness to students and lecturers on matters connected to the digital environment.

“We can produce educational materials on Internet issues as well as support the coordination between youth groups and organisations.”

At IIUM, an initiative called the IIUM Siber Sejahtera Flagship Project was spearheaded by a team of academics and students to impact local, national and global communities.

It is a part of the awareness and advocacy campaign by KICT, which engages the neighbouring communities of IIUM to be cyber-literate and ethical in cyberspace.

“Our first target group is the Orang Asli community wherein we provide training for their youth to be safe in cyberspace.

“To ensure the sustainability of the project, a group of trainers among the Orang Asli is identified so that the knowledge on cybersecurity can be further propagated within the community,” said Mohamed Ridza.

Determined to develop future talents and instil them with values in cybersecurity, the second target group consists of students, teachers and parents in select schools.

“This is to keep them safe from online threats including cyberbullying, violation of privacy, pornography and Internet addiction while promoting virtues.”

Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP) senior lecturer Dr Norshakirah Abdul Aziz said that students especially in the field of information and technology can learn about Internet governance through their university courses and projects.

“Youth or university students should first understand what is actually being governed. In our faculty, we have introduced the subject, Computer Ethics and Cyber Law.

“It is designed to examine the ethical issues surrounding Internet use and the connection between ethics and technology. Our aim is to ensure students know how to apply their knowledge in computer ethics.

“We also want students to demonstrate social responsibilities in relation to computer ethics and the cyberspace. UTP will mould students and develop them to utilise the technology in the right way. Students need to develop the right values and attitudes related to IT governance,” said the computer and information sciences lecturer.

Norshakirah added: “In this course, students will learn about cyber crimes such as computer hacking, privacy infringement, software and product privacy, computing systems and the ethics of software development.

“In the legal aspect, they will learn about the basics of Contract Law, Computer Crimes Act 1997, Digital Signature Act 1997 and the Communications and Multimedia Act. When they study the cyber laws and cases, they can definitely see the impact of Internet governance.

“UTP utilises the active learning and problem-solving method for teaching and learning. Throughout the semester, students will be actively involved in projects related to computer ethics.”

Universities can also lead research projects and consultancy services to help the community.

“In UTP’s High Performance Cloud Computing Data Centre and Centre for Research in Data Science, I lead a very dedicated team to conduct research into IT governance.

“Internet governance is essential to ensure that data is properly managed by the assigned parties. Individuals need to treat their data and information as assets. If a problem occurs when the information is not adequately secured, it can lead to issues such as data breach.

“Many organisations came to realise that Internet governance is critical after many cases of data breaches. So, it is necessary to have someone who can control the data,” said Norshakirah, adding that according to a research conducted, IT governance is an effective management framework.

For Taylor’s University computer science and forensics student Priyanka S. Jayakumar, she had come across the concept of Internet governance a few times whilst studying and researching.

“I understand that Internet governance is all about the rules, standards, practices and especially policies evolving around global cyberspace.

“I know there are laws and acts pertaining to Internet governance but many people aren’t aware of issues related to it,” said Priyanka.

She noted the importance of Internet governance for youth as they are the major age group for Internet users.

“It’s important for youths to know the do’s and don’ts on the Internet and to know the indications when one is faced with something off online. That kind of awareness only comes with proper education and enforcement from a young age.

“More people should be aware of the consequences of certain online activities and learn how to be safe in the virtual world,” said the 21-year-old, who added that awareness can be spread through education, public forums, campaigns and the use of simple and non-technical terms.

“A compulsory subject focusing on Internet awareness should be created and taught in schools. Everyone should be aware of online safety and the new threats and security breaches that are happening on the Internet.

“There should be no room for any uncertainty for young people when it comes to the Internet so they know how to exercise their rights. For example, in the case of cyber-bullying, people should know to contact the relevant authorities to report this incident,” said the aspiring computer forensics investigator.

“Public forums will not only help to educate people about the Internet and its policies but the questions that come from the public may help experts in identifying any loopholes in their policy-making.

By Rayyan Rafidi.

Read more @ https://www.nst.com.my/education/2019/06/499319/youth-and-internet-governance

Preparing job-ready and future-proof graduates

Wednesday, May 1st, 2019
A roundtable discussion in progress on the Future of Work at Bett Asia 2019.NSTP/SALHANI IBRAHIM

THE impact of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (IR4.0) on the future workforce has been the subject of many discussions.

The concern expressed by many is that jobs that exist today will disappear with the onslaught of technologies like automation and artificial intelligence (AI).

Research from global professional network LinkedIn stated that by 2020, 50 million jobs would be displaced due to automation and AI.

Head of LinkedIn Learning business in Asia Georgina O’Brien said this information should not be perceived negatively, but rather should be met with enthusiasm because of the prospects of new opportunities and the skillsets needed going forward.

“In the 1900s, people had one job for life, but now we are looking at 15 careers in a lifetime for millenials and those belonging to the Generation Z group. Sixty-five per cent of jobs hired in the next generation do not exist today. Some of the areas where jobs will emerge are predicted to be in the commercial drone industry, 3D printing, crypto currencies and future agriculture,” she said.

In such an environment, O’Brien said the shelf-life for skills is five years, while technology-based skills would be valid for only three years.

“For students who graduate from university, many of what they learned in their first year is redundant when they get to the job market. Studies show 87 per cent of students feel they are well prepared for jobs and yet, only 50 per cent of managers feel the same way.

“The question is, how are we going to help set university graduates for success? How can we create agility in their education system so they can be job-ready and future-proof?” she asked.

O’Brien said more than ever, we now have to focus on soft skills, as well as hybrid skills like data analytics and collaborative skills, for example.

She said universities should pay attention to the complex characteristics of the modern learner.

“They (students) live in the Netflix era with an on-demand mindset. They know exactly what they are getting. They are associated with just-in-time learning, and things like mobile access (learning on-the-go),” she said.

Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris vice-chancellor Professor Datuk Dr Mohammad Shatar Sabran said with the emergence of technologies and the impact of IR4.0 on universities, talents as well as society, it was critical for the higher education sector to envision the universities of tomorrow.

“The future generations are technology-savvy. We must ensure our courses, teaching methods and future graduates are equipped with more than just an academic qualification,” he said.

But whatever the technology, Shatar said, nothing could replace the human touch.

“As time passes by, the competition to secure a job becomes stiffer and people are getting worried whether there are any jobs left for the younger generations? Will technology replace human intelligence? The differentiator in those who succeed will be soft skills,” he said.

For example, if a job candidate has the ability to speak more than two languages, is able to work in teams and can think critically compared to his competitors with the same Cumulative Grade point average (CGPA) from university, this would make him the more attractive candidate.

“So, universities and lecturers need to look into building this aspect in students. Having academic qualifications is important, but so is having soft skills that would make students more marketable and able to perform in any job or industry,” he said.

Heriot-Watt University Malaysia chief executive officer and provost Professor Mushtak Al-Atabi believed that developing positive personal qualities such as resilience, happiness, self-awareness and self-motivation, could help students unleash their full potential and prepare them to stand out and create an impact in a highly-uncertain world.

“In the 1800s, during the First Industrial Revolution, technology replaced physical labour undertaken by humans. Now, with IR4.0, humans seem to be losing their superiority to machines in terms of cognitive skills.

“What we have left is precision working; ie. skills that football players and piano tuners have, as well as creativity and critical thinking. In the human domain, we have ethics, purpose, empathy and awareness. These are what machines cannot do,” he said, adding that employers needed the above skills in their workforce.

“What universities should do is to instill a sense of purpose in students for a lifelong journey and have them make academic choices that are challenge-focused, with a target to create impact and provide solutions to problems.

Mushtak said universities could form programmes to help structure students’ goals and define the steps toward it. “Emotional intelligence, mental resilience and a sense of purpose are important to have in the IR4.0 era,” he said.

By Rozana Sani.

Read more @ https://www.nst.com.my/education/2019/05/484522/preparing-job-ready-and-future-proof-graduates

Embrace IR4.0 as we move forward

Friday, April 26th, 2019
At the ceremony to launch Taylor’s College's CAT and ACCA programmes, (from right) Taylor’s College campus director Josephine Tan, Human Resources Minister M. Kulasegaran and Taylor’s College school of professional studies head Jason Lo.

At the ceremony to launch Taylor’s College’s CAT and ACCA programmes, (from right) Taylor’s College campus director Josephine Tan, Human Resources Minister M. Kulasegaran and Taylor’s College school of professional studies head Jason Lo.

TAYLOR’s College has launched its Certified Accounting Technician (CAT) and Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) programmes.

In a recent ceremony at Taylor’s Lakeside Campus in Selangor, Human Resources Minister M. Kulasegaran who was the guest of honour highlighted the importance of embracing Industry 4.0, saying that it is inevitable as Malaysia heads towards a more connected, automated and efficient society.

“From the Ministry’s standpoint, Malaysians should continue to be involved in efforts to be equipped with new skills, engage with the workforce to be ready, and march towards this change – individually and on a corporate level – so that Malaysians remain competitive on a global scale,” he said.

Taylor’s College campus director Josephine Tan said it was imperative that education institutions equip learners with quality education, including professional qualifications, and extensive skills that are in line with the Fourth Industrial Revolution (IR4.0) so that they could meet employers’ requirements.

“This, coupled with the advent of IR4.0, is why institutions of higher learning like Taylor’s College need to equip students with human-centred characteristics such as critical thinking, people management, emotional intelligence, negotiation, resilience, cognitive flexibility, life-long knowledge production. among others.

“By putting more emphasis on human-centred characteristics, students will be able to better adapt to technological changes upon entry into the workforce,” she said.

In keeping with Taylor’s College’s commitment to provide a great learning experience for its students, the launch was followed by the first Taylor’s College Forum on Professional Qualification, with the topic Revolutionising the Role of Professional Accountants.

The panellists were Kulasegaran, Baker Tilly Malaysia managing partner of audit and assurance Datuk Lock Peng Kuan, BP Malaysia country head Ainol Roznain Yaacob and 6Biz founder and CEO Datuk Vimmy Yap.

Tan said the event was an example of how Taylor’s College aims to be a differentiating factor for students who enrol in its CAT and ACCA programmes.

“In addition to value-added initiatives such as this, we also will provide our students with the ability to learn according to their schedule. For our students who are busy professionals, we aim to support their learning journey as best as possible.

“Our ReWIND technology enables them to tune in to their lectures on-the-go. This technology can also be utilised by all students to revise for their examinations.

“Additionally, we have an award-winning campus that is equipped with facilities and amenities to support their learning experience.

“We have a proven track record of high achievements over the past 50 years, as we have engaged some of the best academics to provide all our students the education befitting them.

“To ensure that our CAT and ACCA students are able to further enhance their human-centred characteristics, we have updated one of our compulsory modules with Life Skills to ensure that our students’ critical thinking skills will stand them in good stead when they complete the programme,” said Tan.

By doing the two programmes at Taylor’s College, students will gain a comprehensive learning experience and get a headstart towards the future that they want, she added.

For more information on Taylor’s CAT and ACCA programmes, go to https://college.taylors.edu.my/en.html or ACCA at www.accaglobal.com.

Fact Box

Certified Accounting Technician (CAT)

● CAT is open for enrolment with three intakes in January, March and July.

● Students are able to complete this qualification (9 papers) within 1 ½ years. The structured programme takes students’ development into account, allowing them the platform to acquire a strong foundation.

● Upon completion of the CAT exams, one year of relevant practical experience and having completed the Foundation in Professionalism modules, students will be entitled to use  “CAT” in their designation.

Read more @ https://www.thestar.com.my/news/education/2019/04/21/embrace-ir40-as-we-move-forward/#DgcOHwvfEyT3kARd.99

Future-proofing students’ life-long careers

Monday, March 11th, 2019
Study at a leading technology and innovation university to embrace the Industry 4.0 wave.

Study at a leading technology and innovation university to embrace the Industry 4.0 wave.

WITH many unemployed graduates struggling to secure a job after graduating, this has become a major concern for many students and their parents. As the impact of the Fourth Industrial Revolution or better known as Industry 4.0 hits closer to home, we are now edging closer to living in a futuristic world and it is only just a matter of time that routine jobs be replaced by automation and robotics.

As one of the leading technology universities in Malaysia, Asia Pacific University (APU) has been addressing the needs of Industry 4.0 through their innovative teaching and learning methods with first-of-its-kind courses and world-class facilities – ensuring students a future-proof career, not just for their first jobs but for life-long careers.

If technological studies is something you are interested in, APU might just be the premier private university for you. By ensuring that all students are empowered with the ability to keep up with the challenges within the world of Industry 4.0 and beyond, APU is upholding their vision as a university of technology and innovation to nurture the world’s future innovators.

A report published in 2017 titled Emerging Technologies’ Impact on Society and Work in 2030 by Dell Technologies revealed that almost 40% of jobs ranging from entry levels to C-levels will soon be replaced by 2030 – causing far-reaching implications on students aspiring to join the workforce of tomorrow.

Under Industry 4.0, computerisation of smart and autonomous systems have driven developments in revolutionary technologies such as big data, augmented reality (AR), cloud computing, cybersecurity, Internet of Things (IoT) and autonomous robotics. As a result, new jobs have emerged where new talents are needed but are not being produced by universities.

APU addresses the Industry 4.0 wave by introducing carefully designed courses.

However at APU, courses offered to students are highly relevant to Industry 4.0, making graduates future-proof and ready for employment. The teaching and learning approaches at APU are carefully designed to nurture innovative thinking within an integrated campus environment. Students also develop a global mindset by operating within a multi-cultural community on campus that comprises students from over 130 countries. Besides, APU graduates are seen to possess the necessary soft skills and professionalism to face the global challenges ahead.

APU’s Industry 4.0-relevant programmes such as in cyber security, data science, IoT, intelligent systems and cloud computing, were carefully designed together with APU’s industry advisory panels, to equip students with the latest technical and soft skills that are required by the future job market.

APU’s campus offers world-class facilities and a conducive learning environment for students to thrive in

While Industry 4.0 also impacts the global business, accounting and finance spectrum, our students who are currently undergoing their studies in business management, accounting, banking and finance are also exposed towards Industry 4.0-relevant areas such as Financial Technology (FinTech), Digital Marketing, E-Business and Blockchain. APU have also re-designed the programmes to incorporate both traditional financial and business methods as well as innovative emerging technologies, ensuring that business, accounting and finance graduates are future-proof and Industry 4.0-ready as well.

Industrial-grade infrastructure available at APU allows students to be exposed to real-time data and scenarios, training them to become competent technology professionals even before they graduate. For instance, the first-of-its-kind APU CyberSecurity Talent Zone features military-grade real-time cybersecurity monitoring software at the full-fledged Cyber Threats Simulation and Response Centre and Security Operations Centre, providing them real-life exposure and practical experience. Learning at APU is no longer confined within the classroom in the era of Industry 4.0, as one’s practical knowledge becomes as significant as academic and theoretical knowledge.

Industrial-grade infrastructure at APU allows students to undergo a practical learning experience.

APU’s industrial partnerships with innovative accelerators such as GrowthX Academy and Supercharger further enhances the platform for students to realise their world-changing ideas. The formula has proven to be a success, as APU students have been well-recognised through their victories in national and international level competitions organised by major industry players, such as FAMELab, Intel-CREST Industry-University Challenge, NASA Space Apps Challenge, World Asian Business Case Competition, SAS FinTech Challenge and many more. Under this formula, over 40,000 alumni are employed globally in reputable multi-national companies such as Accenture, HP, IBM, Huawei Technologies, Astro, Maybank, Standard Chartered and many more.

On March 23 (Saturday), APU will be organising a series of Industry & Career Seminars, where industry experts from the fields of Cyber Security, Actuarial Studies, FinTech, Games Development, Design & Visual Effects, Data Science, Engineering and other Industry 4.0-relevant areas will be conducting live seminar sessions to provide exposure on potential job opportunities, skillsets required and the prospects of the relevant industry.

By Pan Eu Joe
Read more @
https://www.thestar.com.my/news/education/2019/03/11/future-proofing-students–life-long-careers/#r4zCw2GtKsF4jEcu.99

The dawn of a new revolution

Sunday, October 21st, 2018

PRINTING out a kidney from a machine sounds like something out of a sci-fi movie.

But this could soon be our reality, as researchers continually develop 3D printing with living cells.

This is just a taste of how the next industrial revolution will be.

Loosely defined as the blurring of lines between technology and our real world, the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) will likely see breakthroughs that will change our lives.

To prepare for what lies ahead, new standards are being drafted by the Department of Standards Malaysia (Standards Malaysia).

Existing standards are also being reviewed to see which can be developed to support the 4IR.

Focus is given to standards affecting seven industries deemed as “pace-setters” in the country – industries where Malaysia has the right skills and know-how to potentially become a leader.

These sectors are automotive, food processing, chemicals, petroleum and pharmaceuticals, electrical and electronics, financial services, telecommunications and courier services and lastly, IT services.

For starters, 10 new standards will be introduced on blockchain technology, with three expected to be ready next year, Department of Standards Malaysia director-general Datuk Fadilah Baharin tells Sunday Star.

Blockchain, to put simply, is a list of data that cannot be manipulated.

As such, it offers a secure way to trade, reduces costs and distrust, increases security and bypasses middlemen.

It can be used in various areas but today, its main use is as a distributed ledger for cryptocurrencies like bitcoin.

Fadilah says the three new standards will define jargons and terminologies in the system and set benchmarks on contracts in the blockchain environment.

The other seven standards are currently being drafted.

“At the moment, there are no rules about blockchain technology in Malaysia.

“Local experts, including from Bank Negara Malaysia, are on board with us to draft these standards,” she says in an interview.

Such standards will prepare Malaysia for the development of cryptocurrencies and other potential areas which may use blockchain technology in future.

Apart from that, present standards on agriculture will also be studied and reviewed.

This is to ensure they are in line with the changing times, including how latest technologies can be part of production in plantations and other commodities.

“The standards are already there. But we need to infuse it with technology,” Fadilah adds.

But while the 4IR is set to be an exciting time, Malaysia does face several challenges which may impede how fast we can adapt to this era.

Fadilah points out that there is still a socio-economic gap between urban and rural areas in the country, with some areas still trailing behind in terms of infrastructure.

Such an imbalance can stand in the way of our country fully embracing 4IR.

“Some places still do not have good quality Internet access.

“Some people also have problems owning a car but elsewhere, others are considering driverless cars and electric cars,” she says.

But perhaps the biggest hurdle to overcome is the people’s mindset.

“Technology is evolving and machines can be modified. But change must first come from within.

“We will lag behind if people do not embrace change and only stick to a fixed mindset,” she adds.

Agreeing, Academy of Sciences Malaysia chief executive officer Hazami Habib says the 4IR is already here in Malaysia but we will fall behind if people do not see beyond boundaries.

Drawing from her personal experience, she says an example of innovative thinking was meeting with a plantation operator who used a drone with a video camera to monitor crops, instead of having workers walk around the whole area.

Such creative thinking, using technology, is needed if Malaysia is to be in tandem with the 4IR.

“To build the right ecosystem, we need the Government, business sector, academics and the civil society to have a mindset that supports growth.

“We need the kind of leadership that encourages innovation,” she says.

She says the seven “pace-setter” industries in Malaysia, outlined by a recent local study, showed that Malaysia has the necessary knowledge and strengths in such areas.

And we should use this to our advantage to launch us forward into the 4IR.

“The most precious commodity in future is knowledge. It is the next currency. As long as we have it, we will stay relevant.

“If we don’t have knowledge and technology, we will keep buying other people’s inventions,” Hazami says.

She also points out that 98% of companies in Malaysia are small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

But it is the remaining 2% companies consisting of government-linked companies and multi-national firms which outperform all the rest.

“The 2% of companies have higher productivity. In the 4IR, we need a collaborative economy with shared vision.

“For example, 10 SMEs can join forces to fill the whole value chain of production to compete with larger companies,” she illustrates.

As for whether the advancements in 4IR like robots will be a threat to human jobs, Hazami sees it as opportunities rather than threats.

“Robots still require humans to maintain them. Robots can process data in seconds but it is humans who analyse the data and give them meaning,” she says.

She also believes Malaysia will have the necessary human capital to face 4IR in its full bloom.

“Semi and high skilled talents are in the pipeline. The Government’s policy of having 60% of students in science disciplines will fulfil requirements of the future.

“The focus on Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) will also ensure Malaysia has the right kind of workers,” she says.

In line with the growing conversation on 4IR, the revolution has become the theme for this year’s World Standards Day, celebrated on Oct 14.

Standards Malaysia, as a member of the International Organisation for Standardisation, is commemorating the event by organising a competition on Instagram which ends on Oct 31.

By Yuen Meikeng
Read more @ https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2018/10/21/the-dawn-of-a-new-revolution-its-the-blurring-of-lines-between-technology-and-our-lives-the-fourth-i/#xptbctLUdDrkpXCo.99

How it can break big tech’s hold on A.I.

Sunday, October 21st, 2018
PAIRING artificial intelligence (AI) and blockchain might be what you would expect from a scammer looking to make a quick buck in 2018.

The two concepts, after all, are two of the most buzzed about and least understood ideas in the tech universe.

The blockchain, the database design introduced by bitcoin, has lately been the most popular route for anyone looking to raise money for an idea that sounds too good to be true.

Despite how easy the combination is to mock, the idea of applying blockchain to AI is attracting a growing roster of serious entrepreneurs and venture capitalists, many of them with impressive academic credentials.

Dawn Song, a computer science professor at the University of California in the United States, and Ben Goertzel, the chief scientist at Hanson Robotics, have been among big names arguing that blockchain can be a crucial way to push back against some of the most worrying trends facing the field of AI.

Many AI experts are concerned that Facebook, Google and other big companies are hoarding talent in the field. The Internet giants also control the massive troves of online data that are necessary to train and refine the best machine learning programmes.

Song, Goertzel and other entrepreneurs believe blockchain can encourage a broader distribution of the data and algorithms that will determine the future development of AI.

The startups working towards this goal are applying blockchains in a number of ways. At the most basic level, just as blockchain allows money to be moved around without any bank or central authority in the middle, AI experts are hoping a blockchain can allow AI networks to access large stores of data without any big company in control of the data or the algorithms

Ben Goertzel, the chief scientist at Hanson Robotics, with the humanoid robot Sophia, an alternative to Amazon’s Alexa, in his office in Hong Kong. He wants Sophia to reach out to other AI providers if she cannot find answers to users’ questions. NYT PIC

Several startups are setting up blockchain-based marketplaces, where people can buy and sell data. Ocean Protocol, a project based in Berlin, Germany, is building the infrastructure so that anyone can set up a marketplace for any kind of data, with the users of data paying the sources with digital tokens.

Unlike Google and Facebook, which store the data they get from users, the marketplaces built on Ocean Protocol will not have the data themselves — they will just be places for people with data to meet, ensuring that no central player can access or exploit the data.

“Blockchains are incentive machines — you can get people to do stuff by paying them,” said Trent McConaghy, one of the founders of Ocean Protocol, who has been working in AI since the 1990s.

Ocean Protocol is working with several automakers to collect data from cars to create the AI of autonomous cars. All the automakers are expected to share data so none of them have a monopoly over it.

Another startup, Revel, will pay people to collect the data that companies are looking for, like pictures of taxis or recordings of a particular language. Users can let their phones and computers be used to process and categorise the images and sounds — all in exchange for digital tokens. Over a thousand people have already put their computers to work.

These sorts of marketplaces are only the outer layer of the blockchain-based systems that are being built to handle AI data.

One of the biggest concerns that people have about the data being collected by Google and Facebook is the access it gives these companies to the most private details of our lives.

Song is working on a block-chain, known as Oasis, that will use advanced techniques to secure the data being bought and sold, so that no one — not even the company using the data — will get a copy of it.

In the Oasis network, all data moving through the system will be locked into encrypted bundles. Researchers will be able to run the data through their machine learning algorithms — and prove that the calculations were done correctly — without actually seeing the underlying data.

Other startups are using blockchains to open access to the AI models themselves. Goertzel has created SingularityNET, a blockchain that will serve as a link among AI services around the world. If one AI module is unable to come up with an answer, it can consult with others and provide compensation if one of the other modules is able to get it right.

By NATHANIEL POPPER

Read more @ https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2018/10/423209/how-it-can-break-big-techs-hold-ai