Archive for the ‘Teacher's Professionalism’ Category

Inspiring teachers will inspire learners.

Sunday, January 6th, 2019

BELIEVE this: when teachers inspire, students will aspire to greater heights. A teacher’s enthusiasm is infectious and can inspire students to take ownership of their learning.

We often speak about student-centred learning. What about teacher-centred learning? I am not alluding here to a teacher’s professional knowledge base, which is a given; I am referring to learning that awakens and informs a teacher about self-awareness; about the desirable and personal teacher traits she already has, or not; but needs to have. The need to learn about the essence of her true self – the store and substance of goodness she has within her as well as her shortcomings.

Remember, a teacher communicates to her charges more than the subject material she is teaching. She is engaged in a human relationship, the management of which will determine the nature of all future learning transactions.

Ministering to the young is not a cut-and-dried job; it is a vocation and not all have the passion or calling for it. Yet, one hopes that along the course of training or teaching, the said person will begin to find joy and meaning in the actual act despite the onslaught of impositions that see no end.

Inspiring teachers will motivate both themselves and their learners to aspire to learn with joy and meaning no matter where the school or what their level of learning may be. To learn with passion and love, one needs teachers with drive and a nurturing spirit; teachers with a growth mind-set who embrace wholly their calling even in the face of mounting challenges.

Yes, we may have all the technological devices at our disposal to make learning appealing but the best resource is still the human resource. Only inspired teachers, policy makers, and politicians, can tip the balance to make the difference, to provide the cutting edge we are looking for in our young.

From experience we know that a person has to be caring enough to become a teacher. She must care about who she is to herself (her true nature), and who she is to others. She must first FIND herself, before she can be useful to others.

An uncaring teacher can foul up on many levels – her own work, her students’ progress, and her callous attitude that results in lack-lustre teaching can prove disastrous to the system.

A caring teacher is a motivator who can stir enthusiasm and who seeks to inspire goodness and leadership qualities in others because she is a self-inspired leader. Inspired teachers are instrumental in making learning happen and they are aware that everyone can learn if suitably inspired.

But we all have our blind spots. These may prevent us from seeing what holds us back from giving our best. If we do not pause to reflect “How am I as a teacher?” and learn from it, we may resort to putting on a “teacher façade” that gives the impression that we know what we are doing. But, in the core of our being, do we really? It is not so much what we do in class that impacts students; it is why and how we do what we do, because only then we are being true to ourselves and our students; it is then that they see us as caring and inspiring persons.

We have to dig deep within ourselves for that sense of self-awareness to discern if we are inspired enough to do what we are doing and whether we have an innate desire to inspire and challenge ourselves and our charges to be the best they can be in a win-win situation. Inspiration is a seed found within a person who has potential, and this seed can become the driving force for growth of the individual because it is a form of energy that has creative power!

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Prof Jomo gets national award

Sunday, December 9th, 2018
Dr Mahathir (second from left) presents the award to Prof Jomo (second from right) while Dr Maszlee (left) and Higher Education Department director-general Datin Paduka Dr Siti Hamisah Tapsir look on. — Bernama

Dr Mahathir (second from left) presents the award to Prof Jomo (second from right) while Dr Maszlee (left) and Higher Education Department director-general Datin Paduka Dr Siti Hamisah Tapsir look on. — Bernama

PROF Dr Jomo Kwame Sundaram has been awarded the prestigious “Tokoh Akademik Negara” award.

Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad presented the award to the prominent economist at the 12th National Academic Awards ceremony in Putrajaya last week.

Prof Jomo was recognised for his outstanding achievement in various fields, both in Malaysia and abroad.

The former economics professor recently entered the limelight when he was appointed as a member of the Council of Eminent Persons.

Among the list of Prof Jomo’s stellar achievements included his appointment as Assistant Director-General and Coordinator for Economic and Social Development, in the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation.

He currently holds the Tun Hussein Onn Chair in International Studies at the Institute of Strategic and International Studies.

Dr Mahathir also presented other awards to six other academicians.

Two Universiti Malaya lecturers, Assoc Prof Dr Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor and Assoc Prof Dr Juan Joon Ching received the Book Publication Award and the Promising Academician Award respectively.

Universiti Teknologi Mara’s Mohd Faizul Noorizan received the Arts and Creativity Award (Craft) while Assoc Prof Dr Mawar Safri of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia was presented the Arts and Creativity Award (Creative Writing).

Universiti Putra Malaysia’s Assoc Prof Dr Wan Zuhainis Saad received the Teaching Award (Pure Science) while Universiti Utara Malaysia’s Assoc Prof Dr Fauziah Abdul Rahim received the Teaching Award (Applied Arts and Applied Social Science).

Meanwhile, Dr Mahathir in his speech said academicians are an important group of people who will produce future-proof graduates that are not only knowledgeable, but also have the wisdom to deal with complex life situations.

Even though they are usually victims of criticism, the government remains proud of the achievements shown by our academicians and institutes of higher learning.

Their achievements will contribute to the strategy to bring the country’s education to an international level, said Dr Mahathir.

By Joseph Kaos Jr
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M’sian teachers among world’s most dedicated

Sunday, November 25th, 2018
The Global Education Census 2018 found 70 of Malaysian teachers felt teaching was a rewarding career. —

The Global Education Census 2018 found 70 of Malaysian teachers felt teaching was a rewarding career. —

MALAYSIAN teachers love their jobs and are among the most dedicated in the world for ensuring their students excel academically, according to the first ever Global Education Census 2018.

The census found 70% of Malaysian teachers felt teaching was a rewarding career.

The research is conducted by education organisation Cambridge Assessment International Education (Cambridge International), which is part of the University of Cambridge and prepares school students for life, helping them develop an informed curiosity and a lasting passion for learning.

“Also, 75% of teachers who took part in the survey, run extra classes to help their students achieve good exam grades – the highest of all the countries surveyed,” said Cambridge International in a statement.

The Global Education Census is the first comprehensive global study to show what life is like in schools around the world today for students aged 12 to19 and their teachers.

In Malaysia, 477 students and 634 teachers took part in the survey.

The census focuses on 10 countries namely Argentina, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Spain and the United States.

It sought the views of almost 20,000 teachers and students on topics such as best classroom practices, effective use of additional teaching and learning aids, use of technology in learning and teaching, extracurricular activities, student aspirations and teacher motivations.

Cambridge Assessment International Education regional director, Southeast Asia & Pacific Dr Ben Schmidt said: “To help the nearly one million students around the world who are taking Cambridge programmes prepare for the future, we wanted to understand what education is like across the world today.”

“We wanted to understand not only what students learn, but how, and in what context, and to share these insights with the wider education community as we explore how we evolve educational programmes to meet the changing needs of leaners, parents and educators,” he said.

The report is aimed at teachers, school leaders, and parents around the world and provides insights on a range of topics including use of technology in learning and teaching, subjects taught, extracurricular activities, student aspirations and teacher motivations.

The census revealed that Malaysian teachers are very focused on helping their students to achieve good grades, so that they can go on to fulfil their career aspirations.

Among the 10 countries surveyed, Malaysia recorded the highest percentage of teachers who invest extra time in ensuring students understand the key to acing their examinations.

The census found that three out of four teachers said they provided additional lessons and classes for their students to acquire the knowledge for success.

Additionally, the study of past exam papers is Malaysian teacher’s favourite method to help prepare their students well for exams.

When asked how they measure their own professional performance, 84 percent of Malaysian teachers scored highest in the world for saying they use exam results as a measure of their own success.

“Some 40 percent said they measure their success by the number of students who fulfil their aspirations and dreams by going on to study higher education or university courses,” it said.

In addition, Malaysian schools also came top in the census for offering careers advice to students, further supporting them to fulfil their career aspirations.

“About 70 percent of Malaysian teachers surveyed, said their school offers career and counselling services to students, more than any other country surveyed in the census,” it said.

The census also identified Malaysia as the top country for recognising academic performance of students. “A total of 45% of teachers said they hold a special assembly to recognise student achievement and 48% said they give out prizes – the highest globally,” it said.

Cambridge International supports this culture of recognising success having awarded hundreds of prizes to Malaysian students in recent years, through the annual Cambridge Assessment International Education’s Outstanding Cambridge Learner Awards.

The ceremony earlier this year, awarded prizes for the November 2017 examination series for Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) and Cambridge International AS and A Level, and saw 125 learners from 46 schools awarded top achiever accolades.

Education beyond the classroom

The census found that the most common subjects taken in Malaysia are Mathematics (95 percent of students study it); English Language (83 percent); and Chemistry (75 percent).

As such, teachers recognise the importance to specialise in these fields to help students prepare for higher education.

The programmes offered at Cambridge International, for students and teachers, endeavour to impart valuable knowledge and skills that go beyond academics.

To ensure students are ready for the world, Cambridge International offers a rich and varied curriculum that enables students to pursue subjects they are passionate about, but at the same time help them to develop life-long skills such as team work, leadership, the ability to think outside of the box and critical thinking.

“Cambridge International hopes that through the Global Education Census that educators in Malaysia continue to be dedicated and passionate in not only teaching, but passing on the necessary knowledge, skills and know-hows for learners to be successful academically and to be world-ready citizens,” said Dr Schmidt.

National Union of the Teaching Profession secretary-general Harry Tan said this reiterates the union’s stand on the level of dedication by Malaysian teachers.

“Our teachers are hardworking but are bogged down by matters other than teaching.

“So to keep up (with the syllabus), they conduct extra classes. Some schools even have night classes before exams like the Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR).

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Dr M: Good knowledge and good character should go hand-in-hand.

Wednesday, November 7th, 2018

PETALING JAYA: The national educational system needs to teach students good values and characters beyond imparting knowledge, says Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad.

“I feel some attention should be given in school from kindergarten to university on discussions about good moral values,” said the Prime Minister during a dialogue with students at Toyo University in Japan on Wednesday (Nov 7).

Dr Mahathir, who is on a three-day working visit to Japan, said education systems have become knowledge specific to make students job-ready, but lacked focus in moulding students’ character.

“If a student has good knowledge, but has bad character, the knowledge would not benefit the community,” Dr Mahathir said.

He said children should learn from an early age that that taking what does not belong to them is bad, but returning the item to the owner is good.

Without naming anyone, Dr Mahathir said some countries have used education as a form of indoctrination.

“I have seen one country at least where young people as young as six years old were taught to adore the leader and think of him as a God who can do no wrong,” he said.

He said the end result is an oppressive regime and government.

“It will make the people suffer and the government will fail,” he added.

Dr Mahathir arrived at Tokyo on Monday (Nov 5) for a three-day working visit.

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Sued for refusing to teach English

Wednesday, October 31st, 2018

Kota Kinabalu: A former student of a secondary school in Kota Belud is suing the Government, Education Minister and six others for refusing to teach the English Language subject to her and her Form Four classmates three years ago.

It is understood to be the first such case where students are suing the school authorities for denying them their right to learn English.

She said this was a violation of their rights as students and was against the Federal Constitution, more so as it was their duty to teach but were absent from class nearly throughout the year.

They subsequently failed the subject in SPM examination, placing their hopes for a bright future in jeopardy.

Siti Nafirah Siman, 19, named Mohd Jainal Jamrin (a teacher), Hj Suid Hj Hanapi (in his capacity as Principal of SMK Taun Gusi), SMK Taun Gusi, Kota Belud District Education Officer, Sabah Education Director, Director General of Education Malaysia, Minister of Education Malaysia and Government of Malaysia as the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth defendant, respectively

In her statement of claim, Siti Nafirah said that the first defendant was a teacher at the school and at all material times was assigned to teach the English language subject to students at the 4 Perdagangan class (4PD), in which the plaintiff was in.

She claimed that on or about February, 2015, the first defendant stopped entering 4PD and another class for his assigned English classes and was absent right until November save for a week in October 2015.

On March 30, 2015, the fourth, fifth, sixth and seven defendants, through their officers were notified that English teachers of the said school were absent from their classes during their assigned teaching hours.

This notice was made in a WhatsApp chat group (known as ‘the Fulbright WhatsApp Group’) and it was made by one Ibrahim Jadoon, a US State Department Fulbright Senior English Teaching Assistant Grantee to Malaysia, who was assigned to the third defendant for the 2015/2016 academic year, said Siti Nafirah.

She said on April 28, the same year, the fifth defendant through his two officers, were notified by Ibrahim that: As of date, the first defendant has been absent from his designated duty to teach the English subject to 4PD since February 2015; the second defendant has not taken any action regarding the first defendant’s absenteeism despite being notified of the same since April 2015; The affected students have made their grievances known to Ibrahim.

On June 17, 2015, the fourth defendant was given further notice of the absence of the first defendant when Ibrahim contacted one Bees Satoh, who was at the material time District English Language Officer (DELO), regarding the lack of action taken by the fourth defendant, despite having notice of the first defendant’s failure to attend the 4PD classes for five months.

On July 29, 2015, during a meeting called by the officers of the fifth defendant, the first defendant’s absenteeism was brought up by Head of English Department in the said school and that an officer of the fifth defendant, admitted that he was aware of absent English teachers at the said third defendant school

Siti Nafirah further claimed that sometime in July 2015, the other class was assigned a new English teacher and she, together with other students of 4PD, after noticing this, requested someone to speak with school administrators to assign them a new English teacher.

On Aug 6, the same year, the second defendant was once again notified of the first defendant’s absenteeism. This time, the second defendant sighted copies of class attendance records which showed the first defendant’s absenteeism.

On Aug 7, the fourth defendant through his officer, received a report from the Head of English Department of the said school regarding the first defendant’s absenteeism, but no action was taken against the first defendant.

On Aug, the sixth and seventh defendants, though their officer was notified of the first defendant’s absenteeism through an email and was also notified of the apparent lack of action by the second, fourth and fifth defendants regarding the said Absenteeism. On Aug 10, the fifth defendant through his officer, again received notice of the first defendant’s absenteeism through the Head of English Department’s Fulbright monthly report and as of date, the plaintiff has had no English teacher for seven months.

On Aug 17, the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh defendants, through their officers visited the third defendant school and met with the second defendant but they failed to address the first defendant’s absenteeism and this visit prompted the first defendant to enter the plaintiff’s class for one week. After which, he continued his absenteeism.

he plaintiff also claimed that she was informed by someone that officials from the fourth, fifth and sixth defendant were at school and she expressed her desire to talk to the officials regarding the impact of the absenteeism of the first defendant but the officials refused to meet with her.

On Aug 18, the second defendant had a meeting attended by all English teachers in the said school including the first defendant and during the meeting, the first defendant failed to explain his absenteeism when confronted by the Head of English Department and that the second defendant also refused to discuss the issue of absent teachers during the meeting, despite the same being brought up for discussion.

On Aug 24, a meeting was held at the office of the fourth defendant and was attended by, among others, the first, second defendants and officers of the fourth defendants.

During the meeting, the second defendant claimed that he was only notified of the first defendant’s absenteeism two weeks prior to the meeting and that the fourth defendant also denied knowledge of the first defendant’s absenteeism.

The fourth defendant instructed that a two-week self-observation of English teachers be conducted at the third defendant school.

The plaintiff further claimed that on Sept 9, the same year officers of the fourth defendants visited the said school and once again refused to discuss the issue of teacher absenteeism despite the same being brought up for discussion by someone

On or about October 2015, the second defendant met with the 4PD students including the plaintiff, in which during the meeting, the second defendant intimidatingly questions the students regarding first defendant.

After hearing the response from the students, the second defendant then proposed a deal, where he will arrange for an English teacher to teach their class for the remaining academic year, in exchange for them to write favourable words about the first defendant and also to claim responsibility for the lack of an English teacher during the year.

The plaintiff claimed that, out of fear and the desperate want for an English teacher, the students of 4PD, including her, accepted the second defendant’s offer.

On or about October 2015, the first defendant fabricated his attendance record under the instruction of the second defendant. Consequently, the attendance records then showed that the first defendant was only absent for two months.

The plaintiff claimed that the first defendant continued to be absent from 4PD which were at the material time was without a teacher for seven months.

The first defendant entered 4PD for a duration of one week in October 2015 after the visit by officials of the fourth, fifth and sixth defendant on Aug 17 and then refused to teach them again.

The plaintiff claimed that the first defendant was in breach of Regulations 3A and 23 of Public Officers (Conduct and Discipline) Regulations 1993 for his absence during the said Absenteeism and his failure to perform his duty as the English Language teacher for 4PD.

She also claimed, among others that the second, fourth and fifth defendants had known or ought to have known that they are duty bound under Regulation 3C(1) Public Officers (Conduct and Discipline) Regulations 1993 to take appropriate action upon being notified of the first defendant absence during the said Absenteeism.

Accordingly, second, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and eights defendants are in breach of their statutory duty under Regulation 3C(2) Public Officers (Conduct and Discipline) Regulations 1993.

She also claimed that the first, second, fourth, fifth, sixth, seven and eight defendants was at all material times under a duty to ensure that the students of 4PD, including her are to receive quality education, a right protected by Article 5 read together with Article 12 of the Federal Constitution.

The plaintiff also claimed that at all material times the defendants were aware that their acts were unlawful and would cause the injury and losses to her and also have violated her constitutional right to education.

She said the defendants, except the third defendant, were negligently and/or in breach of their Statutory Duty and/or committed misfeasance in public office.

The first defendant, she claimed failed to attend and teach English classes during the said Absenteeism and also claimed that the second defendant failed to take any reasonable steps to ensure that the first defendant taught the 4PD students and that with the knowledge that such failure would result the 4PD students not being prepared for the examination as prescribed by or under the Education Act.

The plaintiff is therefore, seeking among others a declaration that the first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh and eight defendants are in breach of their statutory duty under the Education Act by failing to; ensure that she is taught the English language during the period of February 2015 to Oct 2015; prepare her for examinations as prescribed under the Education Act

She also seeking a declaration that the first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh and eight defendants are in breach of their duty under Regulation 3C, 25, 26 Public Officers (Conduct and Discipline) Regulations 1913; a declaration that the act complained off by the first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh and eight defendants amounted to misfeasance in public office;

by Jo Ann Mool.

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Outstanding headmasters to be placed at ‘harapan’ schools to boost performance

Wednesday, October 17th, 2018
(File pix) Education Minister Dr Maszlee Malik said the placement was a mandate given by the ministry to the school heads to bring positive changes in the schools. NSTP/ Supian Ahmad

KUALA LUMPUR: Forty-one high performance school heads will be placed at under-performing schools nationwide, the first batch under a project by the Education Ministry to help improve the schools’ performance.

The school heads will be placed at schools that in need for assistance in the form of leadership and school management for a period of three years.

Education Minister Dr Maszlee Malik said the placement was a mandate given by the ministry to the school heads to bring positive changes in the schools.

“All of you (the school heads) are the heroes that will help to propel these under-performing schools in our effort to produce more heroes for the country,” he said in his speech during the handing over of “Pelonjakan Kepimpinan Sekolah (ProPeks) Kohort 2018” programme appointment letters to the school heads today.

He said the placement of top-performing school heads at under-performing schools was a form of recognition for them.

“It is a trust given by the ministry, with hopes that you could help to bring change at the under-performing schools.

“Believe that all of you (the school heads) are the best to do this challenging task,” he said.

He said the success of an organisation depends not only on the quality and efficiency of its members, but more importantly the quality of its leadership.

“In the context of our education system, strategic leadership at the ministerial level must be supported by dynamic leadership at the State Education Department and District Education Office,” he said.

Under the programme, the school heads will be assisted by lecturers from Aminuddin Baki Institute (IAB).

The pilot project, which involved nine high performance school heads, began last year.

The programme upholds the Five System Aspirations under Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025, which to ensure that every school is led by high-performance school head, was a critical effort in ensuring every child gets quality education.

By NSTP Team.

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Learning is never-ending, especially for teachers

Thursday, October 4th, 2018
(File pix) Photo shows a teacher instructing special needs students during a baking class. Education never ends and one of the cores of the law of education is the continuation of education. Pix by Mohd Rafi Mamat

EDUCATIONAL authorities repeat that education never ends and one of the cores of the law of education is the continuation of education.

This is necessary for educators because they have to develop themselves first as individuals, parents, educators and professionals before they can improve other people.

Parents and teachers should set an example. Teachers educate students with their words, but above everything else, by example.

Experts in education say that words move, but examples draw. The example given in the family is the footprint that remains in children.

The behaviour of parents is a stimulus and points the way for their children. They admire their teachers and parents and from there they will be motivated to improve themselves.

Perhaps the most important aspect of this matter is consistency. Parents and teachers must be consistent in what they say and do.

If there is consistency, parents can exercise authority in the family, and teachers will gain respect among their students.


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Improved promotion process for govt officers

Friday, September 21st, 2018
Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad said a new method would be introduced which was transparent and stressed on integrity. NSTP/AHMAD IRHAM MOHD NOOR

PUTRAJAYA: The government is making improvements to its promotion process for government officers, especially those in the top management group.

Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad said a new method would be introduced which was transparent and stressed on integrity.

“This will lessen any form of disatisfaction. This process also involves ministers.

“If they disagree or want to protest (any promotion), they must state their reasons.

“It is not only because one likes or dislikes a person,” he said after the Special Cabinet Committee on Anti-Corruption (JKKMAR) meeting today.

In this respect, the committee had agreed to form the Public Services Act.

Dr Mahathir also said the committee had agreed with the Foreign Ministry’s request not to fill any of the ambassador posts with political appointees.

“There will be no political appointees for those who have retired to be appointed as ambassadors. We will not allow it.

“This is a strong action against ourselves because there are many members of the government party who want to enjoy life as an ambassador,” he said.

For the existing political appointed ambassadors, Dr Mahathir said they would be called back and their service terminated.

By Azura AbasManirajan RamasamyMohd HusniMohd Noor and Zanariah Abd Mutalib

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Teachers need to update skills to stay relevant.

Sunday, September 9th, 2018

TEACHERS not only need to keep up with the changes and transformations, but also must unravel and repackage knowledge, skills, pedagogies and learning outcomes to stay relevant and connected to the future, said Johor Permaisuri Raja Zarith Sofiah Sultan Idris Shah.

She said as the realities of education is being shaped by advances in technology, the digital and digitised education not only required students, teachers and stakeholders to be technology savvy but also, be able to operate using different modes of thinking and doing.

“Teachers can do this by using varied, effective strategies to instruct diverse learners, using tests and other information on students’ performance in instructional planning, and focusing on literacy and numeracy development. We have seen many examples of how teachers have made an impact on the lives of their students. I believe that they should be held as role models for others to follow.

“Their best practices must be shared with all teachers so that they can collectively change communities and nations,” she  said.

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‘Civil servants no longer need to blindly follow orders’

Wednesday, September 5th, 2018
Every civil servant should be a leader who can think creatively and critically and not merely be a follower. File pic by AHMAD IRHAM MOHD NOOR

PUTRAJAYA: Chief Secretary to the Government (KSN) Datuk Seri Dr Ismail Bakar says the era when civil servants must blindly follow orders has passed.

In a statement, he said, in facing the challenges of the borderless world, every civil servant should be a leader who could think creatively and critically and not merely be a follower.

“All these new approaches are unlikely to be implemented if we are still swayed by old dreams. In this limited time, civil servants must act quickly in discharging their duties based on clean, efficient and trustworthy principles,” he said.

He said the power separation between the executive, legislative and judiciary that should take priority in ensuring the integrity of the civil service was undisputed.

When the people were stepping into the new Malaysia era, the public service must also be determined to move forward in providing the best service to the nation and people.

Meanwhile, he said since his appointment as Chief Secretary to the Government a week ago, among his main pledges was to implement reforms in order to prosper the public service and the people in general.

“Lately the image of the civil service is somewhat dented as a result of integrity and governance issues among civil servants.

Chief Secretary to the Government (KSN) Datuk Seri Dr Ismail Bakar says among his main pledges is to implement reforms in order to prosper the public service and the people in general. NSTP pic.

“As the nation’s backbone institution, we must be brave to further improve efficiency, accountability, integrity, governance, transparency and ethics in carrying out duties,” he said.

Ismail said the civil service, which serves as the implementing institution, should be in the forefront in assisting the people.

“The gap between the civil service and the people needed to be closed so that a sense of ownership could be imbued at all levels of society,” he said.

He said in providing the best service to the nation, civil servants must constantly be ready to execute changes in the face of all the obstacles encountered.


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