Archive for the ‘Psychology of Education’ Category

Learning about psychology and management

Sunday, August 7th, 2016
Balanced experience: Dr Ke says the university instils important skills in students which employers value.

Balanced experience: Dr Ke says the university instils important skills in students which employers value.

PSYCHOLOGY is the science of behaviour and the mind.

It uses a variety of scientific methods to explore key areas, for instance, the influence of biology on behaviour; the ways in which we develop from early infancy to adulthood and the way we interact with each other.

All of these approaches enable theories to be developed and tested within psychology, says Dr Ke Guek Nee who is Associate Professor and Associate Head of the School of Life Sciences at Heriot-Watt University Malaysia.

As Malaysia has developed a keen interest and awareness of the importance of mental health and resilience, the demand for psychology graduates for various positions in the country’s government sector, industries and non-governmenatl organisations (NGOs) has been strong.

Heriot-Watt University has a history of excellence dating back to the 1800s. Most notably, the university is recognised for its professionally relevant programmes, which have led to a host of accolades, including being ranked fifth in the United Kingdom and second in Scotland for industry income by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2015-16.

Additionally, the National Student Survey 2015 ranked Heriot-Watt 28th in the UK with nearly nine out of 10 of the university’s final year full time degree students saying that they are satisfied with their education experience.

The university has expanded its reach and now operates out of five campuses: three in the UK, one in Dubai and one in Malaysia. Heriot-Watt University Malaysia offers a variety of programmes at foundation, undergraduate and postgraduate levels in fields which include psychology.

Heriot-Watt University Malaysia offers the Bachelor of Science in Psychology as well as the Bachelor of Science in Psychology with Management programmes. The former covers main areas of the discipline, which include social, forensic and developmental psychology, while the latter incorporates a 70:30 ratio of psychology and management components.

“We do our best to instil important skills, which we believe employers value such as analytical and conceptual skills, report and essay writing as well as interpersonal skills among others,” said Dr Ke.

What’s more, students are given the option to do an industrial attachment during their summer break where they will be assigned an academic-industry supervisor.

“These industrial attachments expose psychology students to a real life work setting.

“The experiences and knowledge gained from industry are valuable for students in order to determine their career paths and specialisations for postgraduate study,” said Dr Ke.

The university also takes measures to provide students with a balanced university experience, as can be seen with its recent launch of its Psychology Society Day.

“Psychology activities and workshops such as on the Hypnosis and Psychology of Coaching were conducted in conjunction with this launch. “Heriot-Watt’s Psychology Society is run by our psychology students, and a number of activities are being lined up to enhance their university experience,” Dr Ke added.

Read more @ http://www.thestar.com.my/news/education/2016/08/07/learning-about-psychology-and-management/

Mental scars can remain – even after flood waters recede

Monday, January 19th, 2015

Flood victims, Amran Ramli, 55, (right) spends some time with his daughter Farisya Atiliana, 1 as their family rebuilds their lives in Temerloh, Pahang

Flood victims, Amran Ramli, 55, (right) spends some time with his daughter Farisya Atiliana, 1 as their family rebuilds their lives in Temerloh, Pahang

PETALING JAYA: Natural disasters leave devastation in their wake. Lives are lost, homes are destroyed and in many cases, even when the physical damage is repaired, scars can still remain.

This is because victims often have no time to prepare, physically or mentally for the hardships natural disasters can bring, according to clinical psychologist Dr Joel Low

“This can cause significant mental distress,” said Low, who is with The Mind Psychological Services and Training.

The Star Online had asked him about the psychological impact disasters such as the recent floods that hit Malaysia’s east coast states.

Low added that those who have to start from scratch after having their entire lives swept away may be at high risk of suffering from depression.

He said that when we are confronted with physical or emotional pain, we either have the option of confronting the pain and feeling it head-on or trying to block it.

Low also added that many people have strong emotional or physical reactions following a traumatic event, with some resorting to suicide as a way to escape.

“Being forced to endure significant difficulties for extended periods makes suicide seem attractive because it acts as a way to end suffering once and for all,” said Low.

But how rough was the suffering in the recent floods? The account of Kelantan flood victim Nusrat Mohammad lends us some insight.

by SAMHITHA MIRA.

Read more @ http://www.thestar.com.my/News/Nation/2015/01/18/psychological-scars-floods/

Support and Criticism of Piaget’s Stage Theory

Thursday, June 6th, 2013
Piaget’s theory of cognitive develop is well-known within the fields of psychology and education, but it has also been the subject of considerable criticism. While presented in a series of progressive stages, even Piaget believed that development does not always follow such a smooth and predictable path. In spite of the criticism, the theory has had a considerable impact on our understanding of child development. Piaget’s observation that kids actually think differently than adults helped usher in a new era of research on the mental development of children.
Support for Piaget’s Theory:

The Theory’s Impact on Education

Piaget’s focus on qualitative development had an important impact on education. While Piaget did not specifically apply his theory in this way, many educational programs are now built upon the belief that children should be taught at the level for which they are developmentally prepared.

In addition to this, a number of instructional strategies have been derived from Piaget’s work. These strategies include providing a supportive environment, utilizing social interactions and peer teaching, and helping children see fallacies and inconsistencies in their thinking (Driscoll, 1994).
Criticism of Piaget:

Problems With Research Methods

Much of the criticism of Piaget’s work is in regards to his research methods. A major source of inspiration for the theory was Piaget’s observations of his own three children. In addition to this, the other children in Piaget’s small research sample were all from well-educated professionals of high socioeconomic status. Because of this unrepresentative sample, it is difficult to generalize his findings to a larger population.

Problems With Formal Operations

Research has disputed Piaget’s argument that all children will automatically move to the next stage of development as they mature. Some data suggests that environmental factors may play a role in the development of formal operations.

Underestimates Children’s Abilities

Most researchers agree that children possess many of the abilities at an earlier age than Piaget suspected. Recent theory of mind research has found that 4- and 5-year-old children have a rather sophisticated understanding of their own mental processes as well as those of other people. For example, children of this age have some ability to take the perspective of another person, meaning they are far less egocentric than Piaget believed.

Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development

Thursday, June 6th, 2013

Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development

The formal operational stage begins at the onset of adolescence and lasts through adulthood.

Characteristics of the Formal Operational Stage:

The formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve to and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also emerge during this stage.

Logic:

Piaget believed that deductive logic becomes important during the formal operational stage. Deductive logic requires the ability to use a general principle to determine a specific outcome. This type of thinking involves hypothetical situations and is often required in science and mathematics.
Abstract Thought:
\While children tend to think very concretely and specifically in earlier stages, the ability to think about abstract concepts emerges during the formal operational stage. Instead of relying solely on previous experiences, children begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions. This type of thinking is important in long-term planning.

Concrete Operational Stage of Cognitive Development

Wednesday, June 5th, 2013

Concrete Operational Stage of Cognitive Development

The concrete operational stage takes place from around ages 7 to 11.

Image by Paul Turnbull.

Characteristics of Concrete Operations:

The concrete operational stage begins around age seven and continues until approximately age eleven. During this time, children gain a better understanding of mental operations. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts.

Logic:

Piaget determined that children in the concrete operational stage were fairly good at the use of inductive logic. Inductive logic involves going from a specific experience to a general principle. On the other hand, children at this age have difficulty using deductive logic, which involves using a general principle to determine the outcome of a specific event.

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Read more @ http://psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/p/concreteop.htm

Sensorimotor Stage of Cognitive Development

Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

The Sensorimotor Stage

The sensorimotor stage occurs during early childhood between birth and approximately age two.

Image by Justung Furmanczuk

Characteristics of the Sensorimotor Stage:

The first stage of Piaget’s theory lasts from birth to approximately age two and is centered on the infant trying to make sense of the world. During the sensorimotor stage, an infant’s knowledge of the world is limited to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activities. Behaviors are limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli. Children utilize skills and abilities they were born with (such as looking, sucking, grasping, and listening) to learn more about the environment.

Object Permanence:

According to Piaget, the development of object permanence is one of the most important accomplishments at the sensorimotor stage of development. Object permanence is a child’s understanding that objects continue to exist even though they cannot be seen or heard.

Imagine a game of peek-a-boo, for example. A very young infant will believe that the other person or object has actually vanished and will act shocked or startled when the object reappears. Older infants who understand object permanence will realize that the person or object continues to exist even when unseen.

Substages of the Sensorimotor Stage:

The sensorimotor stage can be divided into six separate substages that are characterized by the development of a new skill.

Reflexes (0 – 1 month)

During this substage, the child understands the environment purely through inborn reflexes such as sucking and looking.

Primary Circular Reactions (1 – 4 months)

This substage involves coordinating sensation and new schemas. For example, a child may such his or her thumb by accident and then later intentionally repeat the action. These actions are repeated because the infant finds them pleasurable.
Secondary Circular Reactions (4 – 8 months)

During this substage, the child becomes more focused on the world and begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to trigger a response in the environment. For example, a child will purposefully pick up a toy in order to put it in his or her mouth.

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Read more @ http://psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/p/sensorimotor.htm

Preoperational Stage of Cognitive Development

Sunday, May 5th, 2013

The Preoperational Stage

The preoperational stage lasts from approximately the ages of 2 to 7.

Image by Jeremy Doorten.

Characteristics of the Preoperational Stage.
The preoperational stage occurs roughly between the ages two and seven. Language development is one of the hallmarks of this period. Piaget noted that children in this stage do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people, which he termed egocentrism.
During the preoperational stage, children also become increasingly adept at using symbols, as evidenced by the increase in playing and pretending. For example, a child is able to use an object to represent something else, such as pretending a broom is a horse. Role playing also becomes important during the preoperational stage. Children often play the roles of “mommy,” “daddy,” “doctor” and many other characters.
Egocentrism:
Piaget used a number of creative and clever techniques to study the mental abilities of children. One of the famous techniques to demonstrate egocentrism involved using a three-dimensional display of a mountain scene. Often referred to as the “Three Mountain Task,” children are asked to choose a picture that showed the scene they had observed. Most children are able to do this with little difficulty. Next, children are asked to select a picture showing what someone else would have observed when looking at the mountain from a different viewpoint.
Invariably, children almost always choose the scene showing their own view of the mountain scene. According to Piaget, children experience this difficulty because they are unable to take on another person’s perspective.
Conservation:
Another well-known experiment involves demonstrating a child’s understanding of conservation. In one conservation experiment, equal amounts of liquid are poured into two identical containers. The liquid in one container is then poured into a different shaped cup, such as a tall and thin cup or a short and wide cup. Children are then asked which cup holds the most liquid. Despite seeing that the liquid amounts were equal, children almost always choose the cup that appears fuller.
Piaget conducted a number of similar experiments on conservation of number, length, mass, weight, volume, and quantity. He found that few children showed any understanding of conservation prior to the age of five.

Jean Piaget Biography (1896-1980)

Tuesday, April 23rd, 2013

The principle goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done.
-Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget

Image: Wikimedia Commons

Best Known for:

Birth and Death:

  • Born August 9, 1896
  • Died September 16, 1980

Jean Piaget’s Early Life:

Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland in 1896 and began showing an interest in the natural sciences at a very early age. By age 11, he had already started his career as a researcher by writing a short paper on an albino sparrow. He continued to study the natural sciences and received his Ph.D. in Zoology from University of Neuchâtel in 1918.

Theory:

Piaget identified himself as a genetic epistemologist. “What the genetic epistemology proposes is discovering the roots of the different varieties of knowledge, since its elementary forms, following to the next levels, including also the scientific knowledge,” he explained in his book Genetic Epistemology. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the origin, nature, extent, and limits of human knowledge. He was interested not only in the nature of thought, but in how it develops and understanding how genetics impact this process.

His early work with Binet’s intelligence tests had led him to conclude that children think differently than adults. It was this observation that inspired his interest in understand how knowledge grows throughout childhood.

He suggested that children sort the knowledge they acquire through their experiences and interactions into groupings known as schemas. When new information is acquired, it can either be assimilated into existing schemas or accomodated through revising and existing schema or creating an entirely new category of information.

Today, he is best known for his research on children’s cognitive development. Piaget studied the intellectual development of his own three children and created a theory that described the stages that children pass through in the development of intelligence and formal thought processes.

The theory identifies four stages; (1) the sensorimotor stage, (2) the preoperational stage, (3) the concrete operational stage, and (4) the formal operation stage.

Contributions to Psychology:

Piaget provided support for the idea that children think differently than adults and his research identified several important milestones in the mental development of children. His work also generated interest in cognitive and developmental psychology. Piaget’s theories are widely studied today by students of both psychology and education.

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Read more  @ http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/piaget.htm

What Is Negative Reinforcement

Friday, December 21st, 2012

Negative reinforcement is a term described by B. F. Skinner in his theory of operant conditioning. In negative reinforcement, a response or behavior is strengthened by stopping, removing or avoiding a negative outcome or aversive stimulus.

Aversive stimuli tend to involve some type of discomfort, either physical or psychological. Behaviors are negatively reinforced when they allow you to escape from aversive stimuli that are already present or allow you to completely avoid the aversive stimuli before they happen.

One of the best ways to remember negative reinforcement is to think of it as something being subtracted from the situation. When you look at it in this way, it may be easier to identify examples of negative reinforcement in the real-world.

Examples of Negative Reinforcement:

Learn more by looking at the following examples:

  • Before heading out for a day at the beach, you slather on sunscreen in order to avoid getting sunburned.
  • You decide to clean up your mess in the kitchen in order to avoid getting in a fight with your roommate.
  • On Monday morning, you leave the house early in order to avoid getting stuck in traffic and being late for class.

Can you identify the negative reinforcer in each of these examples? Sunburn, a fight with your roommate and being late for work are all negative outcomes that were avoided by performing a specific behavior. By eliminating these undesirable outcomes, the preventative behaviors become more likely to occur again in the future.

Negative Reinforcement versus Punishment:

One mistake that people often make is confusing negative reinforcement with punishment. Remember, however, that negative reinforcement involves the removal of a negative condition in order to strengthen a behavior. Punishment, on the other hand, involves either presenting or taking away a stimulus in order to weaken a behavior.

Consider the following example and determine whether you think it is an example of negative reinforcement or punishment:

Timmy is supposed to clean his room every Saturday morning. Last weekend, he went out to play with his friend without cleaning his room. As a result, his father made him spend the rest of the weekend doing other chores like cleaning out the garage, mowing the lawn and weeding the garden, in addition to cleaning his room.

If you said that this was an example of punishment, then you are correct. Because Timmy didn’t clean his room, his father assigned a punishment of having to do extra chores.

When Is Negative Reinforcement Most Effective?

Negative reinforcement can be an effective way to strengthen a desired behavior. However, it is most effective when reinforcers are presented immediately following a behavior. When a long period of time elapses between the behavior and the reinforcer, the response is likely to be weaker. In some cases, behaviors that occur in the intervening time between the initial action and the reinforcer are may also be inadvertently strengthened as well.

According to Wolfgang (2001), negative reinforcement should be used sparingly in classroom settings, while positive reinforcement should be emphasized. While negative reinforcement can produce immediate results, he suggests that it is best suited for short-term use.

by Kendra Cherry.

Read more @ http://psychology.about.com/od/operantconditioning/f/negative-reinforcement.htm

What Is Positive Reinforcement?

Monday, December 10th, 2012

In operant conditioning, positive reinforcement involves anything that follows a behavior that makes it more likely that the behavior will occur again in the future. When a favorable outcome, event or reward occurs after an action, that particular response or behavior will be strengthened.

One of the easiest ways to remember positive reinforcement is to think of it as something being added. By thinking of it in these terms, you may find it easier to identify real-world examples of positive reinforcement.

Examples of Positive Reinforcement:

Consider the following examples:

  • After you execute a turn during a skiing lesson, your instructor shouts out, “Great job!”
  • At work, you exceed this month’s sales quota so your boss gives you a bonus.
  • For your psychology class, you watch a video about the human brain and write a paper about what you learned. Your instructor gives you 20 extra credit points for your work.

Can you identify the positive reinforcement in each of these examples? The ski instructor offering praise, the employer giving a bonus and the teacher providing bonus points are all examples of positive reinforcers. In each of these situations, the reinforcement is an additional stimulus occurring after the behavior that increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again in the future.

An important thing to note is that positive reinforcement is not always a good thing. For example, when a child misbehaves in a store, some parents might give them extra attention or even buy the child a toy. Children quickly learn that by acting out, they can gain attention from the parent or even acquire objects that they want. Essentially, parents are actually reinforcing the misbehavior. In this case, the better solution would be to use positive reinforcement when the child is actually displaying good behavior.

Different Types of Positive Reinforcers:

There are many different types of reinforcers that can be used to increase behaviors, but it is important to note that the type of reinforcer used depends upon the individual and the situation. While gold stars and tokens might be very effective reinforcement for a second-grader, they are not going to have the same effect with a high school or college student.

  • Natural reinforcers are those that occur directly as a result of the behavior. For example, a girl studies hard, pays attention in class and does her homework. As a result, she gets excellent grades.
  • Token reinforcers are points or tokens that are awarded for performing certain actions. These tokens can then be exchanged for something of value.
  • Social reinforcers involve expressing approval of a behavior, such as a teacher, parent or employer saying or writing “Good job” or “Excellent work.”
  • Tangible reinforcers involve the presentation of an actual, physical reward such as candy, treats, toys, money and other desired objects. While these types of rewards can be powerfully motivating, they should be used sparingly and with caution.

When Is Positive Reinforcement Most Effective?

When used correctly, positive reinforcement can be very effective. According to a behavioral guidelines checklist published by Utah State University, positive reinforcement is most effective when it occurs immediately after the behavior. The guidelines also recommend the reinforcement should be presented enthusiastically and should occur frequently.

The shorter the amount of time between a behavior and the presentation of positive reinforcement, the stronger the connection will be. If a long period of time elapses between the behavior and the reinforcement, the weaker the connection will be. It also becomes more likely that an intervening behavior might accidentally be reinforced.

by Kendra Cherry.

Read more @ http://psychology.about.com/od/operantconditioning/f/positive-reinforcement.htm